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Unit 7 SOL Review

Gilded Age

TermDefinition
”Jim Crow” laws laws introduced in southern states following Reconstruction that segregated schools, railway cars, and eventually all public facilities
Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 Supreme Court decision upholding segregation ruling that “separate but equal” did not violate the 14TH AMENDMENT
NAACP NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE started by W.E.B. DU BOIS to get POLITICAL EQUALITY for blacks
Ida B. Wells led an anti-lynching crusade and called on the federal government to take action
Booker T. Washington former slave who founded the Tuskegee Institute; believed the way to equality for blacks was through vocational education and economic success; accepted social separation
W.E.B. DuBois founder of the NAACP (The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
Homestead Act of 1862 gave FREE PUBLIC LAND in the WEST to settlers who would live on and farm the land
Transcontinental Railroad railroad track stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean, which intensified westward movement of settlers to states beyond the Mississippi
Ellis Island island in New York Harbor where an official INSPECTION STATION was set up to check newly-arrived IMMIGRANTS for illnesses
“Melting pot” American society that evolved from absorbing immigrants from many countries who worked to learn English, adopt American customs and become citizens
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 a law passed in 1882 which suspended all immigration from china for ten years
Immigration Restriction Act of 1921 law that limited immigration to the United States
Bessemer (steel process) a process for removing impurities from iron that made it possible to inexpensively manufacture steel in large quantities
Laissez-faire the theory that government should not interfere in economic affairs
Capitalism an economic system based on private ownership and free competition
Corporations businesses chartered by a state and owned by shareholding investors
Assembly line an arrangement of machines, equipment, and workers in which work passes from operation to operation in a direct line until the product is assembled
Henry Ford inventor of assembly line manufacturing
Thomas Edison inventor of the LIGHT BULB, the phonograph, and over 1000 other inventions
Alexander Graham Bell inventor of the telephone who later started the Bell Telephone Co.
Wright Brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright;, inventors who made the FIRST SUCCESSFUL AIRPLANE FLIGHT in 1903 at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina
Andrew Carnegie businessman who revolutionized the Steel industry using the Bessemer process; donated his great wealth to charity
J.P. Morgan INVESTMENT BANKER who purchased Carnegie Steel and reorganized it into the United States Steel Corporation
John D. Rockefeller businessman who became wealthy in the oil industry; organizer of the Standard Oil Company
Cornelius Vanderbilt businessman who became wealthy in the railroad industry
George Pullman businessman who controlled the RAILROAD CAR industry and had an unethically run COMPANY TOWN
Robber Barons Derogatory name given to Captains of Industry that ran monopolies
Third-party a political party other than the Democratic or Republican party
Progressivism a movement beginning around 1900 that aimed at solving political, economic, and social problems
“Square Deal” President Theodore Roosevelt’s goal of fairness and justice for the American people
“New Freedom” Woodrow Wilson’s reform program announced during the 1912 presidential campaign
16th Amendment allowed the federal government to raise money for government spending through an income tax (1913)
17th Amendment allowed direct election of U.S. Senators (1913) and SECRET BALLOT
18th Amendment prohibition amendment; banned the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages (1919)
19th Amendment allowed women’s suffrage, giving women the right to vote (1919)
Initiative state government reform which allowed CITIZENS TO PETITION FOR A NEW LAW
Referendum state government Progressive reform in which CITIZENS VOTE ON A PROPOSED INITIATIVE
Recall state government Progressive reform that allowed ELECTED PUBLIC OFFICIALS to be REMOVED FROM OFFICE BY A VOTE OF THE PEOPLE
Muckrakers writers during the progressive era who exposed social and political evils
Labor union organizations formed by workers and farmers to defend their interests and pressure government to play a more active role in the economic life of the country
Knights of Labor labor union that worked through political action rather than strikes to end child labor, get 8-hour workday and public ownership of railroads and telegraph lines. Headed by Terence Powderly.
American Federation of Labor organization of Labor unions of skilled workers founded in 1886; first president – Samuel Gompers; encouraged employers to hire only union workers and held direct talks between organized workers and employers (collective bargaining)
American Railway Union independent LABOR UNION of skilled and unskilled railroad workers, set up by Eugene V. Debs in 1893.
Pullman Strike 1894 strike at Pullman Car Company in Chicago by members of the American Railway Union (ARU) to protest wage cut. President Cleveland sent troops.
Haymarket Square Strike 1886 – Chicago strike for an 8 hour work day that turned violent when an unidentified person threw a bomb. Caused the Knights of Labor to die out.
Homestead Strike 1892 steel worker strike in Pennsylvania, broken up by Pinkerton agents and the state militia
Sherman Anti-Trust Act 1890 law intended to prevent the creation of monopolies by making it illegal to establish trusts that interfered with free trade
Clayton Anti-Trust Act more strict than Sherman Anti-Trust Act; 1914 law that made certain business practices that encouraged monopolies illegal and protected the rights of labor unions and farm organizations
Prohibition the banning of the manufacture, sale, and possession of alcoholic beverages
Samuel Gompers First President of the American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Eugene V. Debs labor activist who formed the American Railway Union (ARU). He ran for president several times as a socialist.
Created by: catherine_pace