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Psy-CH 2-7

Psychology of Language - Review test

TermDefinition
Duality of Patterning A grammatical concept that is basic to the study language A feature of a communication system in which a small number of meaningless units can be combined into a large number of meaningful units.
Phones Speech sounds
Phonemes Differences in sounds that make a contribution to meaning; they are indicated by slashes
Distinctive features When a feature distinguishes one phoneme from another
Morphology The study of (1) how words are structured (2) how words are put together from smaller parts (3) how language build words and indicate grammar relationships between words
Morpheme The smallest meaningful unit in a language
Phrase-structure rules(PS rules) Part of every language user's knowledge of his or her language is the knowledge of how constituents are put together and categorized in that language
Linguistics productivity Our ability to create and comprehend novel utterances
Within linguistic theory, Langauge is An infinite set of well-formed sentences
Within linguistic theory , a Grammar is A formal device with a finite set of rules that generates the sentences in the language
Deep structure (from PS rules) The level of linguistic structure assumed in transformation grammar (TG) that express the underlying semantic meaning of a sentence
Surface structure (from TG rules) The level of syntactic structure assumed in TG that is closer to the phonetic specification of an utterance.
Derivational theory of complexity(DTC) States the psychological complexity of a sentence is directly proportional to the length of its derivation.
Arbitrariness No intrinsic relationship exist between the set of sounds and the object to which the sounds refer.
Four basic grammatical concepts (1) Duality of patterning (2) Morphology (3) Phrase structure (4) Linguistic productivity
working memeory a temporary repository of information that is relevant for ongoing cognitive tasks
long term memory as a memory structure that holds permanent knowledge
semantic memory our organized knowledge of words,concepts,symbols and objects
episodic memory our experience from our personal perspective
object permanence children's understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be perceived
speech perception module the best candidate for the status of a special language module
parallel processing distruibuted processing views that the mind as simultaneously processing a large amount of information
modularity theorists regard language as one of a series of distinct modules
automatic tasks tasks that do not require substantial resources
serial processing if a group of processes takes place one at a time
Stress the emphasis given to syllables in a sentence
suprasegmentals prosodic factors such as stress, intonation and rate
voicing concerns whether the vocal cords are together or separated when the lung air travels over them
Dual-route model we have two different ways of converting print to speech
speaker normalization listeners use the pitch of the speech signal as a cue for vocal tract size and make perceptual adjustments on this basis
TRACE model challenges the assumption, found in the modularity view, that phonemic processing is unaffected by higher levels of processing
coarticulation the phenomenon of producing more than one speech sound at a given time
The lack of invariances there is no one-to-one correspondence between acoustic cues and perceptual events
Formant transitions the large rises or drops in formant frequency that occur over short durations of time
Fixation the time that we spend at a given location between eye movements
Lexical access the process by which we activate our word knowledge
The reference of a word the relationship between words and things in the world
Semantic priming occurs when a word presented earlier activates another, semantically related word.
Spreading activation models words are presented in the internal lexicon in a network, but the organization is not strictly hierarchical
Autonomous search model one of the earliest and most influential models of lexical access
Meronymy pertains to the parts of an object referred to by a word
Currently, the main idea regarding the "organization of the lexicon" is that it is set up as a "semantic network" of interconnected elements
Children learn ________ first and adults also use them when asked to name an example of a concept. basic-level terms
Late closure strategy states that wherever possible, we prefer t oattach new item to the current constituent.
An utterance with a(n) illocutionary force is commonly referred to as a "speech act"
What are the two types of figurative language that have been examined most intensively in psycholinguistics research In direct speech acts & metaphor
What is a particular form of elaborative processing the draing of inferences
Instantiation we seem to be identifying a general term with a specific meaning, this process know as
Lakoff & Johnson have argued that "metaphors " are instantiations of underlying conceptual metaphors
Parsing the process of assigning elements of surface structure to linguistics categories.
Narrative discourse can be contrasted with expository discourse, in which the goal of the writer is not to tell a story but rather to convey information about the subject matter.
Anaphor When we use an expression to refer back to something previously mentioned in discourse, the referring expression is called
3 ways we store discourse surface representation ,propositional representations & situational models
Situational modes retained the best and are based on spaial or causal relations between parts of a text
Episodes have a characteristics structure some initiating event occurs, leading to some internal response on the part of the protagonist
Bridging inference If we don't have a direct antecedent for the given information, we can still tie the sentences together by making a bridging inference.
schemata, which are structures in ____________ that specify the usual arrangement of information in a text. Semantic memory
Bresnan's lexical-functional grammar has sometimes been called psychologically realistic grammar
A parameter is a grammatical feature that can be set to any of several values
A distinctive feature is a characteristics of a speech sound whose presence or absence distinguishes the sound from other sounds
Four pervasive properties are duality of patterning, morphology, phrase structure, and linguistic productivity
Created by: bettytseng122
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