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US History STAAR

US History STAAR - People, Events, and Reforms

13th Amendment 1865 Abolished Slavery
14th Amendment 1868 Defined Citizenship as Belonging to Anyone Born in the US and Cannot be Taken Away Without Due Process
15th Amendment 1870 Granted Voting Rights to Adult Males
Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896 Supreme Court Case that allowed for "seperate but equal" facilities; reversed by Brown vs. Board of Education
17th Amendment 1913 Allowed for the direct election of senators, increasing public's influence over the governement
Progressive Era Reforms Initiative early 1900's Citizens can introduce new legislation and can propose a new law by petition
Progressive Era Reforms Referendum early 1900's Submitting a proposed public measure or statue to direct popular vote
Progressive Era Reforms Recall early 1900's Public official can be removed from office by popular vote
19th Amendment 1920 Granted right to vote (suffrage) to women
American Indian Citizenship Act 1924 Granted citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States
Mendez v. Westminster 1946 Federal case in California which challenged racial segregation in schools- segregating Mexican American students is unconstitutional
Desegregation of the Armed Forces 1948 By Executive Order, President Truman ended segregation in the Armed Forces
Delgado v. Bastrop ISD 1948 US Federal District Court ruled segregation of Mexican American students was illegal
Sweatt v. Painter 1950 Supreme Court case stating that the attempt to create a segregated UT Law School was unconstitutional under the Equal Protection Clause
Brown v. Board of Education 1954 Supreme Court case which ended "separate but equal" ruling from Plessy v. Ferguson; led to desegregation of schools
Henandez v. Texas 1954 Supreme Court case, Mexican Americans & other racial groups have equal protection under the 14th Amendment
Civil Rights Act 1957 Protected voting rights
Civil Rights Act 1964 Abolished racial,religious & sex discrimination by employers
24th Amendment 1964 Ended poll tax
Voting Rights Act 1965 Outlawed poll tax or literacy test in order to eligible to vote
Tinker v Des Moines 1969 Supreme Court case extending 1st amendment rights to students' freedom of speech includes free expression
26th Amendment 1971 Decreased voting age from 21 to 18 in response to draft in Vietnam War
Wisconsin v Yoder 1972 Supreme Court case, Amish children are exempt from compulsory education beyond 8th grade because it violates the parents' right to freedom of religion
White v Regester 1973 Supreme Court ruled Texas redistricting in 1970 was discriminatory against groups in various districts
Edgewood ISD v. Kirby 1993 Texas case ending discrimination against poor school districts; redistributes property taxes equally across the state from richer districts to poorer districts
Jane Addams Founded Hull House in Chicago to help poor immigrants, part of social reform movements
Susan B. Anthony Advocated for women's suffrage
Vernon Baker Awarded several top military honors in WWII, including the Medal of Honor
Roy Benavidez Awarded the medal of honor for saving fellow soldiers in Vietnam War
The Black Panthers Radical group in the 1960's who advocated self-defense and revolution to end black oppression; more militant than MLK and other civil rights leaders but also established daycare centers, medical clinics, etc.
*Omar Bradley Commanded 1st US Army during D-Day Invasion, lead liberation of Paris, won the Battle of the Bulge
William Jennings Bryan Important Politician during time period,supported prohibition, women's rights, income tax; Gave famous "Cross of Gold" speech attaching tariffs. Prosecuted John Scopes in the "Monkey Trial" for teaching evolution
Andrew Carnegie Accumulated huge wealth in railroad and steel industry;used Bessemer process to create steel;Developed "Gospel of Wealth" doctrine in which he believed it was the duty of the wealthy to use money to improve conditions for all
Charles Carroll Founding Father; signed the Declaration of Independence
*Cesar Chavez Fought discrimination against migrant workers and Hispanics;Founded the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee Union
Bill Clinton 42nd President,Democrat; third President to be Impeached but acquitted by the Senate
Hillary Clinton First Lady of President Bill Clinton;Only First lady elected to position in US government;Closest to winning a presidential nomination for any woman in history;Served as Secretary of State under President Obama
Glenn Curtiss "Father of Naval Aviation" & "Founder of the American Aircraft Industry"
Clarence Darrow Famous Defense Attorney; most famous for defending science teacher John Scopes for teaching evolution in his biology class
*Alexis de Tocqueville French Political Thinker & Historian who came to US to study the political & social nature;Identified 5 characteristics that sets Americans apart:Liberty,Egalitarianism,Individualism,Populism,Laissez-Faire
Sanford Dole Negotiated the annexation of Hawaii to US in 1898;served as President of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Hawaii after Queen Liliuokalani was overthrown
WEB DuBois Early civil rights leader,published "The Souls of Black Folks" in 1903 & helped found the NAACP in 1909;Advocated for Pan-Africanism(all African descent people should fight oppression togther)
*Dwight Eisenhower 34th President;prior to Presidency,served in WWII as commander of Allied Forces in North Africa,Sicily,& Italy;Promoted to General after D-Day;created interstate highway system
Orval Faubus Governor of Arkansas who supported segregation;used Arkansas National Guard tom prevent students from integrating Little Rock High School;President Eisenhower sent army troops to enforce court order to protect first 9 African-American students
The Flying Tigers Americans who volunteered to serve as pilots fighting the Japanese in China prior to the US entering the war
Henry Ford founder of Ford Motors,innovated the auto industry with the assembly line and invented the Model T and Model A cars with an affordable price
Betty Frieden wrote The Feminine Mystic,co-founded NOW (National Organization of Women)
*Hector P. Garcia Mexican American physician and civil rights advocate;organized the American GI Forum(1948)initially to improve veteran benefits and enhance medical attention
*Hector P. Garcia organized American GI bill expanded to address educational & vocational training,housing,public education,poll taxation,voter registration,hospitalization, and employment
Marcus Garvey publisher,journalist, & Black Nationalist;founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association & African Communities League
Bill Gates Developed a small software business in his garage that eventually employed numerous Americans and set the standard for computer software
Barry Goldwater US Senator from Arizona(1953-65,1969-1987)& republican party nominee for President in 1964 election;retired from Senate in mid 1980's;considered on of founders of modern Conservative movement
Billy Graham Powerful,evangelical preacher; conducted many evangelical crusades and counseled majority of US Presidents from Truman through Obama
John Hancock Representative from Massachusetts; president of Continental Congress in 1775; first to sign the Declaration of Independence
Warren Harding President in the 1920's;advocated "return to normalcy"(meaning life before WWI)& "America First" campaign encouraged industrialization and a strong economy, independent of foreign influence
Dolores Huerta Advocate and lobbyist for farmworkers' rights
John Jay Representative from New York at the Continental Congresses;signer of the Declaration of Independence;helped negotiate Treaty of Paris 1783 ended American Revolution;diplomat to England late 1700's negotiated Jay's Treaty averted threat of 2nd British war
Robert Johnson Founder of television network BET - Black Entertainment Television
John F Kennedy President during the 1960's.Navigated the US through the Cuban Missile Crisis and other Cold War issues with the Soviet Union;assassinated in 1963
*Martin Luther King, Jr. Leader of the Civil Rights Movement;preached nonviolent approach and demanded equal rights for African Americans
Estee Lauder Listed as one of Times most influential business people in 1998;grew up in New York & developed a world renowned beauty company. The basis of entrepreneurial skills were learned in her father's hardware store and working for her uncle
Charles A. Lindbergh First solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean
Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. Supported American expansion as a way to increase national pride, spread civilization, and gain world power
*Douglas MacArthur Commander of the US Army in the Pacific in WWII
Lester Maddox Governor of Georgia;former restaurant owner who refused to serve African Americans;ran for governor though he had not held a public office before
Alfred Thayer Mahan Historian & author of a book on the importance of the navy to a country's power
*George Marshall Chief of Staff that coordinated the war effort from Washington DC in WWII
Thurgood Marshall Distinguished lawyer;appointed to the US Supreme Court in 1967 and established a record for supporting the voiceless American
Joseph McCarthy Senator after whom the term "McCarthyism" is named;The fear of Communism increased throughout the 1950's ;stated communists worked in the State department;he worked to identify known communists and accused other s by association
John Peter Muhlenberg Clergyman;soldier during Colonial,Revolutionary, and Post-Revolutionary eras in Pennsylvania;elected to the first US Congress
*Navajo Code Talkers American Indians recruited by the military to encode,transmit, and decode messages;the language was used to develop a code that was not broken by the enemy in WWII
Richard Nixon President in the 1970's;Helped US withdraw from Vietnam and improved relations with China but resigned Presidency after Watergate Scandal
*Chester Nimitz Commander of the US Navy and Allied Land and sea forces in the Pacific in WWII
Barack Obama First African American President of the United States; elected in 2008
Sandra Day O'Connor First woman to be appointed to the US Supreme Court in 1981
*Rosa Parks African American civil rights activist;in Montgomery,Alabama in 1955 she refused to give up her seat on the city bus for a white man;led to Montgomery Bus Boycott
*George Patton Colorful and celebrated tank commander for the Third Armored Division who spearheaded the final attack into Germany in WWII
General John J. Pershing Commander of the American Expeditionary Forces in WWI
Ronald Reagan President in the 1980's;grew the US economy through "Reagonomics";influenced the end of the Cold War ;advocated a strong military to deter aggression against the Monroe Doctrine
Theodore Roosevelt "Rough Rider" during Spanish-American War;expansionist policies as President increased the US role in Latin America and the world;reasserted the Monroe Doctrine
Eleanor Roosevelt First Lady,appointed by President Truman as a delegate to the United Nations Assembly and became the first chair person of the preliminary United Nations Commission on Human Rights
Franklin D. Roosevelt President during the Great Depression and WWII;Famous for "New Deal" recovery program which helped alleviate the Great Depression and expanded the role of government;said Dec.7,1941 is a "day which will live in infamy."
Benjamin Rush From Pennsylvania; treasurer of the US Mint from 1797 to 1813;physician,writer,educator,Founding Father;signed the Declaration of Independence and attended the Continental Congress
Phyllis Schiafly A political conservative known for her anti-feminism and campaign against the Equal Rights Amendment; she believed you could be a mother and have a career,too; wrote/co-authored several books
Upton Sinclair Author;wrote The Jungle which exposed the conditions in the US meat packing industry,causing a public uproar and leading to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act
Lionel Sosa Founder of the largest Hispanic advertising agency in Texas; San Antonio-Sosa,Bromley,Aguliar,Noble & Associates; named Top 25 Hispanics in 2005 by Time Magazine
Sonia Sotomayor First Hispanic to serve on the Supreme Court, nominated by Obama
Harry Truman As President,ended segregation in the military;proposed his"Fair Deal" including full employment and fair employment practices bills, federal control of the unemployment compensation program,a large housing program & development of natural resources
Harry Truman Attended Potsdam conference at the end of WWII;became suspicious of the Soviet intentions under Stalin.
Harry Truman Eventually, Soviet suspicions affected his leadership in the early years of the Cold War and led to his Doctrine where the US supported Greece and Turkey in their attempt to ward off communist threats.
Jonathan Trumbull,Sr. The only colonial governor who supported the American cause/side in the Revolution
*The Tuskegee Airmen Determined young men who enlisted to become America's first black military aviators at a time when the US military stilled practiced racial segregation. They participated in over 15,000 sorties and earned over 100 Flying Crosses.
George Wallace Governor of Alabama;ran for President four times;fierce pro-segregationist;quote from inaugural address,"I say segregation today,segregation tomorrow, and segregation forever."
Sam Walton small-town general store manager who believed he could bring goods to rural America;store WalMart is industry leader in supply chain operations and brings low prices and common goods to communities across the world
Ida B. Wells American reformer and leader in the anti-lynching crusade and women's suffrage movement
Frances Willard suffragette and member of the WTCU(Women's Christian Temperance Union)
Oprah Winfrey supervising producer and host of the top-rated,award winning talk show for two decades;global media leader & philanthropist
John Witherspoon active clergyman;New Jersey representative that signed the Declaration of Independence;later President of modern Princeton University
Booker T. Washington Educator and Civil Rights Leader, founding the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, now known as Tuskegee University,Washington clashed with intellectual W.E.B. Du Bois over the best avenues for racial uplift
Medgar Evers Civil Rights Activist (1925–1963) who organized voter-registration efforts, demonstrations and boycotts of companies that practiced discrimination, gunned down at home
Barbara Jordan Politician, first black woman elected to the Texas state senate & first black Texan in Congress,Member of the House Judiciary Committee, she gave the influential opening speech of Richard Nixon’s 1974 impeachment hearings
Alice Walker Pulitzer Prize-winning, African-American novelist and poet most famous for authoring The Color Purple,Women's Rights Activist, Civil Rights Activist,(1944- )
Malcolm X African-American leader (1925-1965)and prominent figure in the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X articulated concepts of race pride and black nationalism in the 1950s and '60s and supported violence;Assasinated at Audubon Ballroom in Manhatten
Alexis de Tocqueville French statesman which studied American character and way of life, wrote Democracy in American listed 5 characteristics which set Americans apart
Jackie Robinson Baseball player, brought an end to racial segregation in Major League Baseball
Stokely Carmichael member and later the chairman of SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) working with MLK,Jr. to stage protests;later lost faith in the tactic of non-violence, promoting "Black Power" and allying himself with the militant Black Panther Party
George Washington Commander of Continental Army during American Revolution; First president of the US
Thomas Jefferson Author of Declaration of Independence, third President of the US; negotiated the Lousiana Purchase
John D. Rockefeller Business tycoon, owned Standard Oil Co. and controlled 90% of oil industry by making Standard Oil into a trust or monopoly
William (Boss) Tweed leader of New York City’s corrupt Tammany Hall political organization during the 1860s and early 1870s, is delivered to authorities in New York City after his capture in Spain
Thomas Nast political cartoonist which helped raise awareness of political corruption during the Gilded Age
Eugene V. Debs Labor leader attempting to form skilled & unskilled labor groups;ran for President in 1912 under Socialist group as 3rd party candidate earning 6% of popular vote
Archduke Franz Ferdinand Archduke of Austria-Hungary assassinated by Serbian in 1914; one of causes of WWI
Herbert Hoover President at beginning of Great Depression;criticized for allowing depression to deepen and defeated on re-election attempt when voters look to gov't. for help
Lyndon B. Johnson Texan which became president after Kennedy assassination;devloped Great Society program to address health care, civil rights and urban decay;
Fredrick Douglass a former slave and eminent human rights leader in the abolition movement, was the first black citizen to hold a high U.S. government rank,1818–1895
William Lloyd Garrison American journalistic crusader who helped lead the successful abolitionist campaign against slavery in the United States, 1805-1879
Alvin York One of most decorated American from WWI; received Medal Of Honor for leading an attack on German machine gun nest; captured 32 guns, killing 28 Germans and capturing 132 Germans
Mary Edwards Walker Only woman to receive the Medal of Honor; American feminist, abolitionist, prohibitionist, alleged spy, prisoner of war and surgeon (1832-1919)
Mary Kay Ash Entrpreneur of Mary Kay Cosmetics; built company from scratch and created opportunities for women to acieve financial success; left traditional workplace after yet another man she trained was promoted over her
Westward Expansion & the Gilded Age (Late 1800's) Increasing urbanization, immigration increases,political corruption, and political machines, labor unions begin
Progressive Era Protection against abuses, corruption, and wastes; prohibition; women's suffrage
Rise to World Power (1898-1918) World War I (1914-1918) 1898-Spanish American War 1914-1918 World War I(US enters in 1917) Economic Imperialism, Panama Canal League of Nations
The Roaring Twenties (1920-1929) Isolationism & Nativism(fear of immigration) Red Scare,Social Darwinism,Eugenics Jazz Age,Flappers & changing roles of women,consumer boom
Great Depression (1929-1941) 1929 Stock Market Crash beginning the Great Depression Dust Bowl, New Deal Legislation
World War II (1939-1945) 1939-1945 World War II US enters in 1941 after bombing of Pearl Harbor by the Japanese
The Cold War (1950's-1991) 1957 - Sputnik launches; ignited the US-Soviet Space Race
The Cold War (1950's-1991) McCarthyism,HUAC,Berlin Wall,Domino Theory,Korean War, Vietnam War
The Civil Rights Movement (1950's-1960's) 1968-MLK Assassinated 1969-US lands on the moon
The Civil Rights Movement (1950's-1960's) Civil Rights Act of 1957 and 1964 Voting Rights of 1965 Brown v Board of Education
1970-1990 Reagonomics Peace Through Strength Conservative Resurgence
1990-Present 2001-Terrorists attack the World Trade Center & the Pentagon 2008-Barack Obama is elected first African American President
1990-Present US involvement in world affairs, Persian Gulf War, Balkans Crisis
Popular U.S. History sets




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