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1960 - 1974

Liberal Era / A Time of Upheaval

TermDefinition
Special Forces (Green Berets) JFK established these to engage in guerrilla warfare (higher defense budget, strengthened military)
Silent Spring 1962 Rachel Carson book - documented harm of pesticides
Clean Air Act 1963 - Congress passed act that regulated car / industrial emissions
Peace Corps 1961 - Congress backed economic assistance to third-world countries and made this (anticommunism)
Bay of Pigs 1961 spring - CIA plan to invade Cuba. "La Brigada" (rebels) invaded Cuba to overthrow Castro, failed
Berlin Wall 1961 Aug - 1989 - Built to separate East Berlin - possible threat of nuclear war after Kennedy returned with Khrushchev meeting declaring West Berlin defense important
Cuban missile crisis 1962 Oct - aerial photos showed long-range missiles, JKF placed "quarantine" (naval blockade) to stop more missile arrivals. Close to nuclear war until Oct 25, Khrushchev promised to remove missiles if US didn't invade Cuba / removed Turkey missiles
Kennedy Assasination 1963 - Aug 22 - JFK campaigning trip in Dallas, riding in convertible w/ wife and TX gov - shot by accused Lee Harvey Oswald (later killed by Jack Ruby) - left mostly a martyr image
Freedom Rides 1961 spring - CORE organized this through deep south for Supreme Court approved desegregated public transportation - mobs assaulted blacks, Kennedy sent federal marshals / ICC enforced law
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) April 1960 - formed by participants in sit-ins. Had freedom rides. Stressed nonviolence strategy of MLK
James Meredith 1962 Fall - Mob in Ole Miss University disallowed this veteran to go to college - federal marshals had to escort him to school. 2 dead
Birmingham Alabama MLK organized nonviolent sit-ins, marches, pray-ins here. Nicknamed Bombingham for white violence. MLK wrote Letter from () Jail here
Police Commissioner Eugene "Bull" Connor 1963 May -Unleashed policemen in Birmingham to attack nonviolent protestors. Horrified world, showed nation violence
March on Washington 1963, August 28 - 200K blacks, 50K whites, idea introduced by A Philip Randolph in 1941. Did not end segregation / racism, but showed ideas of justice and equality
Civil Rights Act of 1964 1964 - Passed by LBJ - banned racial discrimination / segregation in public accommodations. Created Eq Employ Opport Commis. (EEOC) to enforce job desegregation
MFDP (Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party) 1964 Aug - refused to be seated in national Democratic convention, LBJ gave 2 seats to them, banned disfranchising blacks from conventions - rejected by everyone
March from Selma to Montgomery 1965 March - MLK organized, blacks in this protest were clubbed, shocked, pepper sprayed. Televised, LBJ followed public opinion and urged Congress to allow black suffrage
Voting Rights Act of 1965 1965 Aug - invalidated use of test / device to vote - expanded black suffrage
Riots in Watts, Chicago, Springfield, Newark, Detroit, etc. 1964 - 1968 - 200 dead, 7000 injured, 40000 arrested, $500M in property destroyed. Caused National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders to urge for more black jobs, better and less segregated schools, more housing. Johnson ignored it
Black Power 1966 - Fury of urban riots - expressed more change, rejected MLK nonviolent method.
Malcom X Influenced black power - Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator / leader. Violent, hated MLK's for only focusing on desegregation. Murdered by black Muslims, his autobiography became text of Black Power
Muhammed Ali 1964 - stripped of heavyweight title for refusing to join army based on religion. Both influenced CORE and SNCC to focus on separated black groups instead of integration
Black Panther Party for Self-Defense 1966 - Founded by Huey P Newton / Bobby Seale - turned black men into violent men that had shootouts with the police and FBI - eventually dead / imprisoned destroyed organization
Lyndon Baines Johnson Disliked by JFK loyalists. Passed $10B tax-reduction bill - more capital investment / consumption that lowered deficit. Wanted full war on poverty. Opposed by new conservatives, southern segregationists and blue collar workers
Economic Opportunity Act 1964 - Established its office for unconditional war on poverty - Job Corps, VISTA, domestic Peace Corps, Head Start
Great Society 1964 - Johnson's vision - end to poverty / racial injustice, better education, cleaner nature, quality over quantity
Barry Goldwater Arizona Senator - criticized Johnson's Great Society - wanted active force on communism instead of curing social problems and opposed civil rights. Elected by GOP as 1964 candidate. Sometimes called extremist and nuclear trigger
Election of 1964 1964 - LBJ v Barry Goldwater - LBJ won, Republicans lost many Congressional seats, but changed from moderate and eastern to conservative and southern / western
Immigration Act of 1965 1965 - Abolished national-based quotas on immigration, annual immigration grew to over a million (Most Asian / Latin American)
National Wilderness Preservation Act 1964 - 9.1M acres of wilderness set aside. Helped nature.
The Warren Court The Supreme Court that was led by Chief Justice Earl Warren strongly helping the Great Society (Democratic). Thurgood Marshall was first black justice.
Miranda v Arizona 1966 - Police must advise suspects of their rights. Highest criticism of any Supreme Court decision during this time
Native American Activism 1960s - Natives wanted a better lifestyle, but a view of their culture and practices; sometimes protested and marched
American Indian Movement (AIM) 1968 - Founded by 3 tribes - promoted traditional Native American lifestyle, prevent police harassment, establish survival schools to teach culture, moved to Alcatraz in San Francisco Bay to be separated from society.
Cesar Estrada Chavez Past veteran, wanted to improve work for Mexican-Americans in California (illiterate, poor, unemployed) - like MLK, organized nonviolent resistance. La Causa became movements' name
Chicano / Chicana activism 1960s - young Hispanic activists used these terms to express Mexican descent. Thought of themselves as removed from their culture. MECHA moved students and Congress to pass bilingual education. Led boycott in Sep 16, 1969.
The Young Lords Puerto Ricans in NY modeled after Black Panthers, less nonviolent actions toward equality
Asian American Political Alliance Chinese/Japanese/Filipino students wanting to help their cultural identity and protest war in Vietnam. Protested against problems in their native countries abroad and for improvement of Asian lives in US
National Organization for Women (NOW) 1966 - wanted to bring women to fully participate in society. Owed to The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan that showed housewives' issues. Young women also involved in civil rights
Women's Strike for Equality 1970 Aug - 50th anniversary of women suffrage, paraded for equal employment / legal abortions. Pushed financial institutions to slowly integrate women equally
Munich analogy vs Domino theory JFK refused to accept a communist Vietnam - Republican backlash - letting go aggression would lead to more war (like WW1 and WW2), and if Vietnam went communist, others would too
Diem 1963 Nov 1 - Plotted coup against Buddhist / student demonstrations in Vietnam. Vietnamese officers killed him, US recognized new gov. After JFK died, his advisers knew he would want to win war. LBJ agreed fearing fall of Great Society
Ho Chi Minh Vietnam nationalist leader
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 1964 Aug - US destroyers attacked with North V patrol boats, LBJ asked Congress to give him full authority w/ army - said would not extend conflict, Congress unanimously agreed. Antiwar Americans charged LBJ of lying about not deploying troops in V
Operation Rolling Thunder 1965-1968 - 800 tons of bombs every day, failed to get Hanoi (capital of N Vietnam) to surrender
Meat-Grinder 1967 - attrition strategy - 485k troops, not enough to defeat skillful enemy in home land
Reasons for war opposition / was opponents Massive bombing of underdeveloped nation, no chance of US win, demise of Great Society, hurt the poor who were more likely drafted, TV coverage. Dem senators Fulbright, Robert Kennedy, McGovern, Dr. Benjamin Spock, MLK
Hawks v Doves Accept the short-of-victory v negotiation, not fighting
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) 1962 June - "New Left" 60 students - nonviolent youth movement - transformed into "participatory democracy" - controlled their own lives. Some became radical. Began resistance against Vietnam War
Berkeley Free Speech Movement (FSM) 1964 - Mario Savio led students to campus political activity - sit ins to stop college life for political activity - arrested, began country wide protest against certain college decisions
New Mobilization 1969 - Series of huge antiwar demonstrations. "March Against Death" - 300k protesters came to DC with candles and names of Vietnam victims.
Richard M Nixon 1970 - April 30 said US would invade Cambodia, using Vietnamese troops, more bombs (said troop withdrawals earlier). 1968 - Republican candidate wanting to stop protests / counter-culture
Kent State University Protest Radicals against Cambodia invasion protested violently, troops used tear gas and even shot their M1s, killing 4 students of this University. Some people disagreed with students, not troops
Jackson State College 10 days after Kent State, 2 women students killed by Mississippi state patrolmen attacking protest
Student radicalism The new left did streaking, underground terrorism, protest: many people were shamed of students, turned to conservatism: helped Reagan win 2 terms. New Left did achieve goals in campuses, few students were long-term
Hippies Hated consumerism, preferring to make, share, and be happy. Tried new sexuality and drug use, called "counter culture"
Woodstock Festival 1969 Aug - 400k young people gathered here in NY. Listened to rock, shared drugs, sex. Called dawn of the Age of Aquarius
Roe v Wade 1973 - Supreme Court struck down laws against woman's right to abortion in the first trimester.
Gay liberation 1969 - Gay bar in Greenwich Village, NY fought back to NY police raids
Eugene McCarthy 1968 Jan - MN Dem senator Vietnam war vs LBJ for election
Tet offensive 1968 Jan 31 - NLF and N Vietnam attacked S Vietnam 100 cities. US / S Vietnamese troops inflicted defeat on N Vietnamese bc not successful. LBJ hated for ignoring high casualties, 26% public approval after attack.
Robert Kennedy Expected LBJ to lose 1968 election, decided to run as Dem against McCarthy. Appealed to minorities / poor / working class whites. Killed early June by Sirhan Sirhan (hated pro-Israelites)
Paris Peace Accords 1973 Jan - LBJ's death day, ended America's direct combat in Vietnam, but left S Vietnam and N Vietnam differences to be finished in battle
James Earl Ray Day after WI primary, shot MLK, confessed guilty but the recanted his claim later
Hubert Humphrey LBJ's VP. Dem - 3 sided contest
Yippies 1968 Aug - Youth International Party wanted to protest radically in Chicago National Convention. Mayor daley denied this, authorized police to attack (Aug 28) - violence - tore Democrats - helped Reps. 70% of America in favor of police
George Wallace 1968 - 3rd Party independent candidate disliking counter-culture and protesters. Won 14% of electorate.
Election of 1968 1968 - Humphrey v Nixon v Wallace. Wallace gained 14%, NIxon and Humphrey split almost equally. 301-191. New Deal coalition / liberal era ended
"The Real Majority" / The Silent Majority 1969 - addressed by Nixon - people against black riots, antiwar protest, drugs, porn, etc. New conservatives, middle class, in Sun Belt, Cali, etc.
Henry Kissinger Hitler Germany's refugee that Vietnam detente diplomacy for Nixon. (Decision maker)
Nixon Doctrine 1969 Aug - Nixon's idea that role in Third world was NOT military protector, only helpful partner. LBJ's idea of negotiation moved US troops with idea that it war didn't matter, and many were absent and did drugs
My Lai 1968 March - army unit massacred 100s of in this hamlet in S Vietnam. Violence.
Nixon's 3 steps for peace with honor 1. Vietnamization - replacing US w/ Vietnamese troops 2. Kissinger sent to secretly negotiate treaty with North Vietnamese Le Duc Tho. 3. Force communists to compromise - more bombing / air strikes
Easter Offensive 1972 April - Nixon launched biggest attack on N Vietnam since 1968. Mined harbors / released B-52s on major cities
Christmas bombing 1972 Dec - Hanoi and Haiphong bombed (most destructive of war).
Vietnam veterans Returned not very honored, were confused and had to adapt to new culture. Nation just wanted to forget war, so paid little honor to veterans
Detente 1971-1979 - Vietnam ending helped Nixon achieve this goal with China / Soviet Union. Zedong and Nixon wanted to slow USSR expansion. 1972 Feb trip to China ended 20 years of hostility. May trip to Moscow w/ agreements
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) 1972 - stopped offensive nuclear missiles for 5 years, focused on strategic equality.
Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty 1972 - restricted deployment of Soviets / American missile-defense systems. Did not end arms race, but first step to it
Israelite and Palestine War 1973 - Egypt / Syria attacked Israel on Yom Kippur. US sent supplies to Israel, but Arab states kept oil shipments to US. Prices rose, inflation, and nuclear power began
Shuttle diplomacy Kissinger flew to Middle Eastern capitals for 2 years. Negotiated no fighting, Israel give some gained land away, no oil embargo. Didn't solve issue, but excluded Soviets from role in Middle East
realpolitik Based American aid on nation's opposition to Soviet Union. Supplied aid to leaders of Iran, South Africa, Phillipines. Also Argentina, Brazil, Korea, Angola.
Chile conflict 1970 - Chileans elected Marxist Salvador Allende as president. Nixon blocked aid / loans. After military junta killed Allende and placed dictator, Nixon continued economic flow.
Neil Armstrong 1969 July 21 - Apollo 11 Eagle - walked on moon. 1975 - space race ended w/ US / Soviet cooperation
Nixon's gov First pres since 1849 w/ Congress opposite party. Cooperated w/ Democrats: social security benefits, subsidized housing, grow Job Corps, vote to 18 year-old, less pesticides, protect endangered animals, control mining.
Nixon's issues Conservatives angered by high gov intrusion / Family Assistance Plan (minimum income for all Americans, died in Senate).
Stagflation / Nixonomics (Dem term) Inflation and recession - Nixon cut gov spending and Federal Reserve Board raised interest rates. Lowered standard of living - workers had strikes for higher wages, wealthy invested in real estate not factories/tech - more plants shut down.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Boycotted, rose price of crude oil and gasoline
Nixon's enemy list Nixon wanted to stop unlawful actions: had many agencies and departments that "harassed" his enemies (anti-war, Black Panthers, protesters)
The Plumbers 1970 - Nixon created own White House "FBI" to target anti-war movement
Pentagon Papers 1970 - June 13 - Daniel Ellsberg gave these secret documents to the press containing secret documentary history of US Vietnam involvement, NYT published these this day. Supreme Court ruled for Ellsberg when Nixon tried to ban their publication
Swann v Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education 1971 - Nixon wanted to stop liberalism in South, but Supreme Court upheld desegregated busing. Nixon asked Congress for halt in busing trying to appeal to South
Warren Burger 1969 - Nixon appointed him as Chief Justice along with 3 other conservatives. Supreme Court began moving right w/ civil liberties and police power
1970 midterm elections 1970 - Nixon VP Spiro Agnew called Democrats as snobs and media as negative. Some liberals hated it, others agreed, GOP lost more seats than won in Congress
Election of 1972 1972 - Wallace shot and paralyzed. *George McGovern* of SD for Democrats (antiwar): dumped VP Eagleton after accepting him "1000%" Watergate incident led Nixon to win 520 electoral votes.
Watergate incident 1972 - Liddy and Hunt received Mitchell approval to wire tap Dem Nat Comm phones in Watergate apartment. Few arrested, Nixon ordered to get Hunt's name out of directory, paid $400,000 hush money, told CIA and FBI to stop investigation
Deep throat Secret informant of FBI that wrote clues about the tricks CREEP were playing about Watergate
Special Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities 1973 Feb - Senate established this to investigate Watergate. Hearings revealed enemies list, agencies' harassment of candidates, illegal campaign donations.
Saturday Night Massacre 1973 Oct - Nixon's approval plummeted. Cox wanted to hear tapes of Oval Office, Nixon ordered Richardson to fire him, but resigned instead. Then Department of Justice had to fire Cox.
Gerald R Ford 1973 - Replaced Agnew as Nixon's VP - Agnew found to accept bribes / income-tax evasion. First president who took office who was not elected for VP or president
Reasons for Nixon's resign 1974 July - Obstruction of justice (not allowing investigation), abuse of power, contempt of Congress (not allowing to hear tapes). Aug 9, Nixon resigned.
Created by: uriel_magana