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HSCI 131

Chapter 15 Nervous System

TermDefinition
afferent carry or move inward or toward a central structure
blood-brain barrier protective mechanism that blocks specific substances found in the bloodstream from entering delicate brain tissue
efferent carry or move away from a central structure
limbic system complex neural system located beneath the cerebrum that controls basic emotions and drives and plays an important role in memory
neurilemma additional external myelin sheath that is formed by Schwann cells and found only on axons in the peripheral nervous system
ventricle organ chamber or cavity that receives or holds fluid
cerebr/o cerebrum
cerebrotomy incision of the cerebrum
crani/o cranium (skull)
craniomalacia softening of the cranium
encephal/o brain
encephalocele herniation of the brain
gangli/o ganglion (knot or knotlike mass)
gangliectomy excision of a ganglion
gli/o glue (neuroglia tissue)
glioma tumor composed of neuroglial tissue
kinesi/o movement
bradykinesia condition of slow movement
lept/o thin, slender
leptomeningopathy disease of the thin meninges
lex/o word, phrase
dyslexia difficulty using words
mening/o or meningi/o meninges (membranes covering the brain and spinal cord)
meningocele herniation of the meninges
meningioma tumor in the meninges
myel/o bone marrow; spinal cord
poliomyelitis inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord
narc/o stupor; numbness; sleep
narcotic relating to sleep
neur/o nerve
neurolysis destruction of a nerve
radicul/o nerve root
radiculalgia pain in the nerve root
sthen/o strength
hypersthenia condition of excessive strength
thalam/o thalamus
thalamotomy incision of the thalamus
thec/o sheath (usually refers to meninges)
intrathecal pertaining to the space within a sheath
ton/o tension
dystonia poor (muscle) tone
ventricul/o ventricle (of the heart or brain)
ventriculitis inflammation of the ventricles (of the heart or brain)
-algesia pain
analgesia absence of (a normal sense of) pain
-algia pain
synalgia joined (referred) pain
-asthenia weakness, debility
myasthenia muscle weakness
-esthesia feeling
hyperesthesia increased feeling
-kinesia movement
hyperkinesia excessive movement (hyperactivity)
-lepsy seizure
narcolepsy seizure of sleep
-paresis partial paralysis
hemiparesis partial paralysis of one-half (of the body)
-phasia speech
aphasia without speech
-plegia paralysis
-taxia order, coordination
quadriplegia paralysis of four extremities
ataxia without coordination
pachy- thick
pachymeningitis inflammation of the dura mater
para- near, beside; beyond
paraplegia paralysis of the lower body and limbs
syn- union, together, joined
synalgia referred pain
uni- one
unilateral pertaining to one side
agnosia inability to comprehend auditory, visual, spatial, olfactory, or other sensations, even though the sensory sphere is intact
asthenia weakness, debility, or loss of strength
ataxia lack of muscle coordination in the execution of voluntary movement
closed head trauma injury to the head in which the dura mater remains intact and brain tissue is not exposed
coma abnormally deep unconsciousness with an absence of voluntary response of stimuli
concussion injury to the brain, occasionally with transient loss of consciousness, as a result of trauma to the head
convulsion any sudden and violent contraction of one or more voluntary muscles
dementia broad term that refers to cognitive deficit, including memory impairment
dyslexia inability to learn and process written language, despite adequate intelligence, sensory ability and exposure
Guillain-Barre syndrome autoimmune condition that causes acute inflammation of the peripheral nerves in which myelin sheaths on the axons are destroyed, resulting in decreased nerve impulses, loss of reflux responses, and sudden muscle weakenss
herpes zoster acute inflammatory eruption of highly painful vesicles on the trunk of the body, or occasionally the face (shingles)
huntington chorea inherited disease of the CNS characterized by quick, involuntary movements, speech disturbances and mental deterioration
hydrocephalus accumulation of fluid in the ventricles of the brain, causing increased intracranial pressure, thinning of brain tissue, and separation of cranial bones
acquired hydrocephalus hydrocephalus that develops at birth or any time afterward as a result of injury or disease
congenital hydrocephalus hydrocephalus caused by factors that occur during fetal development or as a result of genetic abnormalities
lethargy abnormal inactivity or lack of response to normal stimuli
anencephaly congenital deformity in which some or all of fetal brain is missing
spina bifida congenital deformity of the neural tube (embryonic structure that becomes the fetal brain and spinal cord) which fails to close during fetal development
meningocele form of spina bifida in which the spinal cord develops properly but the meninges protrude through the spine
myelomeningocele most severe form of spina bifida in which the spinal cord and meninges protrude through the spine
occulta form of spina bifida in which one or more vertebrae are malformed and the spinal cord is covered with a layer of skin
palsy paralysis, usually partial, and commonly characterized by weakness and shaking or uncontrolled tremor
Bell palsy facial paralysis caused by a functional disorder of the seventh cranial nerve
cerebral palsy type of paralysis that affects movement and body position and sometime speech and learning ability
paralysis loss of voluntary motion in one or more muscle groups with or without loss of sensation
hemiplegia paralysis of one side of the body, typically as the result of a stroke
paraplegia paralysis of both lower limbs, typically as a result of trauma or disease of the lower spinal cord
quadriplegia paralysis of both arms and legs, commonly resulting in bowel, bladder, and sexual dysfunction
paresthesia sensation of numbness, prickling, tingling or heightened sensitivity
poliomyelitis inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, commonly resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis
Reye syndrome acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of the brain, liver, and possibly the pancreas, heart, kidney, spleen and lymph nodes
syncope brief loss of consciousness and posture cased by a temporary decrease of blood flow to the brain (fainting)
electroencephalography recording of electrical activity in the brain, whose cells emit distinct patterns of rhythmic impulses
electromyography recording of electrical signals (action potentials) that occur in a muscle when it is at rest and during contraction to assess muscular disease or nerve damage
lumbar puncture needle puncture of the spinal cavity to extract spinal fluid for diagnostic purposes, introduce anesthetic agents into the spinal canal, or remove fluid to allow other fluids to be injected (spinal tap)
nerve conduction velocity test that measures the speed at which impulses travel through a nerve
cryosurgery technique that exposes abnormal tissue to extreme cold to destroy it
stereotactic radiosurgery precisely focused radiation beams are used to treat tumors and other abnormal growths in the brain, spinal column and other body sites, and delivers high doses of radiation to the tumor with minimal exposure to surrounding healthy tissue
thalamotomy partial destruction of the thalamus to treat intractable pain; involuntary movements, including tremors in Parkinson disease; or emotional disturbances
tractotomy transection of a nerve tract in the brain stem or spinal cord
trephination technique that cuts a circular opening into the skull to reveal brain tissue and decrease intracranial pressure
ventriculoperitoneal shunting relieves intracranial pressure due to hydrocephalus by diverting excess CSF from the ventricles into the peritoneal or thoracic cavity
CSF analysis lab test to examine a sample of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord; used to diagnose disorders of the central nervous system; including viral and bacterial infections, tumors and hemorrhage
angiography radiographic image of the inside of a blood vessel after infection of a contrast medium
computed tomography angiography angiography in combination with a CT scan to produce high resolution, 3-D vascular images of the blood vessels
discography CT scan of the lumbar region after injection of a contrast medium to detect problems with the spine and spinal nerve roots
echoencephalography ultrasound technique used to study intracranial structures of the brain and diagnose conditions that cause a shift in the midline structures of the brain
magnetic source imaging noninvasive neuroimaging technique to pinpoint the specific location where seizure activity originates and enable custom surgical treatment for tumor and epileptic tissue resection
myelography radiographic examination to detect pathology of the spinal cord, including the location of the spinal cord injury, cysts, and tumors following injection of a contract medium
positron emission tomography computed tomography that record the positrons emitted from a radiopharmaceutical and produces a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity of body tissues to determine the presence of disease
neurons transmit impulses
neuron structures cell body, axon (from cell body), dendrites (to cell body)
myelin sheath white, lipoid covering of axon; electrical insulator
astrocytes compose the BBB
oligodendrocytes develop myelin
CNS brain and spinal cord; white and gray matter
cerebrum upper part of brain; two hemispheres; frontal, occipital, parietal, temporal lobes
gyri folds in cerebral surface
sulci fissures in cerebral surface
cerebellum controls movement, posture, balance
meninges cover spinal cord (dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater)
peripheral nervous system all nerve tissue outside spinal column and skull
types of nerves sensory, motor, mixed
branches of somatic nervous system sympathetic (fight or flight), parasympathetic (rest and digest)
neurology branch of medicine concerned with neurological disorders
cerebrovascular accident stroke; ischemic, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage
transiet ischemic attack stroke symptoms that resolves within 24 hours
thrombolytic clot buster
epilepsies chronic seizures
aura warning signal of seizures
partial seizure only portion of brain involved, alteration of consciousness for 10-30 seconds, unusual movements and confusion
generalized seizure entire brain involved
tonic-clonic grand-mal; uncontrolled jerking with contraction and relaxation
status epilepticus multiple grand mal seizures without pause to recover in between
Parkinsons disease shaking palsy; progressive neurological disorder affecting brain part for controlling movement; bradykinesia, joint stiffness, shuffling gait, pill rolling; lack dopamine
multiple sclerosis progressive, degenerative disease of myeline sheath (demyelination)
alzheimer disease progressive neurological disorder causing mental deterioration with plaques in cerebral cortex
intracranial tumors tumors that originate in the brain tissue; primary
Created by: arehberg