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HSCI 131

Chapter 14 Endocrine System

antagonistic acting in opposition; mutually opposing
electrolyte mineral salt (sodium potassium and calcium) that carries an electrical charge in solution
glucagon hormone produced by pancreatic alpha cells that stimulates the liver to change stored glycogen to glucose
glucose simple sugar that is the end product of carbohydrate digestion
insulin hormone produced by pancreatic beta cells that allows body cells to use glucose for energy or store it in the liver as glycogen
sympathomimetic agent that mimics the effects of the sympathetic nervous system
adren/o or adrenal/o adrenal glands
adrenomegaly enlargement of adrenal glands
adrenalectomy removal of one or both adrenal glands
calc/o calcium
hypercalcemia excessive calcium in the blood
crin/o secrete
endocrinology study of endocrine glands (and their functions)
gluc/o or glyc/o or glycos/o sugar, sweetness
glucogenesis forming or producing glucose
hypoglycemia abnormally low level of glucose in the blood
glycosuria abnormal amount of glucose in the urine
home/o same, alike
homeostasis state of equilibrium in the internal environment of the body
kal/i potassium
kalemia potassium in the blood
pancreat/o pancreas
pancreatotomy incision of the pancreas
parathyroid/o parathyroid glands
parathyroidectomy excision of (one or more of the) parathyroid glands
thym/o thymus gland
thymoma tumor of the thymus gland
thyr/o or thyroid/o thyroid gland
thyromegaly enlargement of the thyroid gland
hyperthyroidism condition of excessive thyroid gland (function)
toxic/o poison
toxicologist specialist in the study of poisons
-crine secrete
endocrine secrete within
-dipsia thirst
polydipsia excessive thirst
-gen forming, producing, origin
androgen any steroid hormone that increases masculinization
-toxic pertaining to poison
thyrotoxic pertaining to poison (associated with) the thyroid gland
-uria urine
glycosuria glucose in the urine
eu- good, normal
euthyroid resembling a normal thyroid gland
exo- outside, outward
exocrine secretes outside (of bloodstream)
hyper- excessive, above normal
hyperglycemia excessive glucose in the blood
hypo- under, below
hypoinsulinism condition of deficiency of insulin
poly- many, much
polyuria excessive urination
acromegaly rare hormonal disorder in adulthood, usually caused by a GH-secreting pituitary tumor (adenoma) that promotes the soft tissue and bones of the face, hands, and feet to grow larger than normal
diuresis increased formation and secretion of urine
glycosuria abnormal amount of glucose in the urine
Graves disease multisystem autoimmune disorder characterized by pronounced hyperthyroidism usually associated with enlarged thyroid glands (goiter) and exophthalmos (abnormal protrusion of the eyeball)
hirsutism excessive distribution of body hair, especially in women
hypercalcemia condition in which the calcium level in the blood is higher than normal
hyperkalemia condition in which the potassium level in the blood is higher than normal
hypervolemia abnormal increase in the volume of blood plasma (liquid part of the blood and lymphatic fluid) in the body
hyponatremia lower than normal level of sodium in the blood
insulinoma tumor of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas
obesity excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20% or more above ideal body weight
morbid obesity BMI of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight
panhypopituitarism total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormone activity
pheochromocytoma small chromaffin cell tumor, usually located in the adrenal medulla, causing elevated heart rate and blood
thyroid storm crisis of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism caused by the release into the bloodstream of an increased amount of thyroid hormone
virilism masculinization or development of male secondary sex characteristics in a woman
exophthalmometry measures the degree of forward displacement of the eyeball as seen in Graves disease
parathyroidectomy excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands, usually to control hyperparathyroidism
transsphenoidal hypophysectomy endoscopic procedure to surgically remove a pituitary tumor through an incision in the sphenoid sinus (transsphenoidal) without disturbing brain tissue
thymectomy excision of the thymus gland
thyroidectomy excision of the entire thyroid gland (thyroidectomy), a part of it (subtotal thyroidectomy) or a single lobe (thyroid lobectomy)
fasting blood sugar test that measures glucose levels in a blood sample following a fast of at least 8 hours
glucose tolerance test screening test in which a dose of glucose is administered and blood samples are taken afterward at regular intervals to determine how quickly glucose is cleared from the blood
insulin tolerance test diagnostic test in which insulin is injected into the vein to assess pituitary function, adrenal function and to determine insulin sensitivity
thyroid function test test that detects an increase or decrease in thyroid function
total calcium test test that measures calcium to detect bone and parathyroid disorders
computed tomography imaging technique that rotates an x-ray emitter around an area to be scanned and measures the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
magnetic resonance imaging noninvasive imaging technique that uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field, rather than an x-ray beam, to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images
radioactive iodine uptake administration of a radioactive iodine in pill or liquid form is used as a tracer to test how quickly the thyroid gland takes up (uptake) iodine from blood
thyroid scan images of the thyroid gland are obtained after oral or intravenous administration of a small dose of radioactive iodine
pituitary gland hypophysis; master gland; stimulates other glands to secrete their own hormones; posterior and anterior portions
Isthmus divides the thyroid gland
Thyroid hormones thyroxine; triiodothyronine
parathyroid glands regulate calcium by stimulating bones, organs, intestines
Adrenal glands Cover superior surface of kidneys; suprarenal glands
adrenal cortex secretes three steroid hormones (mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, sex hormones)
adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine (sympathomimetics)
pineal gland secretes melatonin
underproduction/overproduction hyposecretion/hypersecretion
Pituitary disorders affect these hormones growth hormone antidiuretic hormone --> hyponatremia
cretinism hypothyroidism in infants --> mental retardation, impaired growth, low body temperature, abnormal bone formation
myxedema hypothyroidism in adulthood
enlarged thyroid gland goiter
tetany decreased calcium r/t hypoparathyroidism
s/s of hyperparathyroidism osteitis fobrosa cystica (demineralization of bones), osteoporosis, adenoma, nephrolithiasis
Addison disease autoimmune destruction of adrenal glands --> deficiency of cortical hormones --> dehydration, fatigue, muscle weakness, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, weight loss
Cushing syndrome excessive cortisol or acth in blood circulation; moon face, thinning harm supraclavicular fat, increased body hair, buffalo hump
ketosis the metabolites of fat (ketones) entering blood
glucometer device used to detect blood glucose levels determined by finger prick and injection of blood into device
insulin pump portable pump delivering basal and bolus doses of insulin continuously
diabetic ketoacidosis primary complication of type 1 diabetes
Created by: arehberg
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