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Unit 3 SOL Review

Constitutional Period

TermDefinition
Articles of Confederation document that outlined the FIRST GOVERNMENT OF THE U.S., a confederation, created after the Declaration of Independence
confederation ALLIANCE permitting states to act together on matters of mutual concern, STATE GOVERNMENTS ARE MORE POWERFUL than the national government
U.S. Constitution document that outlined the SECOND GOVERNMENT OF THE U.S., a federal government, created because of weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation
federalism a political system in which the NATIONAL GOVERNMENT AND STATE GOVERNMENTS SHARE POWER
Constitutional Convention meeting HELD TO REVISE THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION but ENDED IN WRITING THE U.S. CONSTITUTION
“supreme law of the land” the U.S. CONSTITUTION
Virginia Plan presented by JAMES MADISON and SUPPORTED BY LARGE STATES, proposed a BICAMERAL CONGRESS with PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION, THREE CO-EQUAL GOV’T. BRANCHES & a SYSTEM OF CHECKS & BALANCES
bicameral TWO HOUSE Congress (Legislative Branch)
co-equal branches LEGISLATIVE, EXECUTIVE, & JUDICIAL branches of the federal government provided for in the U.S. Constitution
Legislative Branch MAKES LAWS;- CONGRESS bicameral legislature SENATE (2 senators per state) and HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES (number determined by state population).
Executive Branch ENFORCES LAWS – the LAW ENFORCEMENT system, headed by the PRESIDENT. This branch also includes the vice president, the Cabinet, and other departments.
Judicial Branch JUDGES LAWS - the U.S. COURT SYSTEM, headed by the SUPREME COURT. This branch decides arguments about the meaning of laws and how they are applied, and WHETHER THEY ARE CONSISTENT WITH THE CONSTITUTION.
checks and balances provisions in the U.S. Constitution, proposed in the Virginia Plan by Madison, that PREVENT ANY BRANCH OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT FROM DOMINATING THE OTHER TWO BRANCHES
Great Compromise compromise that SATISFIED LARGE AND SMALL STATES; offered a BICAMERAL CONGRESS with equal representation in the SENATE and proportional representation in the HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
equal representation FAVORED BY SMALL STATES, all states have the SAME REPRESENTATION IN CONGRESS, REGARDLESS OF SIZE (Compromise: create SENATE)
proportional representation FAVORED BY LARGER STATES, REPRESENTATION IN CONGRESS IS DETERMINED BY SIZE OF POPULATION (Compromise: create HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES)
3/5 Compromise count THREE-FIFTHS OF A STATE’S SLAVE POPULATION for purposes of REPRESENTATION IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES and TAXATION
Ratification PASSING OF THE CONSTITUTION BY ¾ OF THE STATES to make the Constitution become the document the new government is based on
Federalists SUPPORTERS OF THE CONSTITUTION and of a STRONG CENTRAL GOVERNMENT; believed the role of the federal government is TO PROMOTE ECONOMIC AND PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS, SOLVE NATIONAL PROBLEMS; LIKE TO FOLLOW TRADITION
separation of powers under the federal system outlined in the Constitution, the NATIONAL GOVERNMENT & STATE GOVERNMENTS HAVE SEPARATE POWERS
Anti-Federalists OPPONENTS OF THE CONSTITUTION who wanted strong state governments and limited national government power. Wanted a BILL OF RIGHTS to protect individual rights. Seen as champions of FREE MARKET ECONOMY and more CONSERVATIVE THINKERS.
Bill of Rights FIRST TEN AMENDMENTS TO THE U.S. CONSTITUTION – a formal list of citizen’s rights and freedoms; Demanded by Anti-Federalists and agreed to by Federalists to achieve ratification of the Constitution.
Virginia Declaration of Rights the VIRGINIA BILL OF RIGHTS promotes the IDEA OF BASIC HUMAN RIGHTS. It was written by GEORGE MASON and served as a MODEL FOR THE BILL OF RIGHTS added to the Constitution
Virginia Declaration of Religious Freedom written by THOMAS JEFFERSON to grant FREEDOM OF RELIGION IN VIRGINIA; used as a MODEL FOR WRITING the 1ST AMENDMENT in the Bill of Rights.It outlawed one favored religion or the government support of one type of church.
Thomas Jefferson author of the VIRGINIA DECLARATION OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM; served as the U.S. Ambassador in France during the Ratification Debate
George Washington CHAIRMAN OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION FOR ratification of the CONSTITUTION
James Madison AUTHOR OF THE CONSTITUTION AND THE BILL OF RIGHTS, also known as the “FATHER OF THE CONSTITUTION.” FOR ratification of the CONSTITUTION.
George Mason author of the VIRGINIA DECLARATION OF RIGHTS.AGAINST ratification of the CONSTITUTION
Patrick Henry a VIRGINIAN who was AGAINST ratification of the CONSTITUTION
John Marshall Supreme Court Chief Justice; a VIRGINIAN. The MARSHALL COURT decided: Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden
McCulloch v. Maryland set the doctrine of IMPLIED POWERS. powers that government must have to do the powers written in constitution (delegated powers); established NATIONAL SUPREMACY - federal government is supreme over state governments
Marbury v. Madison set the doctrine of JUDICIAL REVIEW; The Supreme Court has the check over other branches to DECLARE ACTIONS OR LAWS UNCONSTITUTIONAL
Gibbons v. Ogden Supreme Court case which ALLOWED THE COURT TO SETTLE DISPUTES between the 3 branches of government, the levels of government, and interstate business
Created by: catherine_pace