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HSCI 131

Chapter 13 Male Reproductive System

TermDefinition
gamete reproductive cell (ovum or sperm) that contains one-half of the chromosomes required to produce an offspring of the species
libido psychological and physical drive for sexual activity
semen fluid containing sperm and secretions from the prostate and other structures of the male reproductive system
sphincter ringlike muscle that opens and closes a body opening to allow or restrict passage through the structure
testosterone androgenic hormone responsible for the development of the male sex organs, including the penis, testicles, scrotum and prostate
andr/o male
androgenic pertaining to maleness
balan/o glans penis
balanoplasty surgical repair of the glans penis
crypt/o hidden
cryptorchidism condition of hidden testes
epididym/o epididymis
epididymotomy incision of the epididymis
genit/o genitalia
genitourinary pertaining to the genitals and urinary tract
gonad/o gonads; sex glands
gonadopathy disease of the sex glands
olio/o scanty (decreased production)
oligospermia scanty (decreased production) of sperm
orch/o testis
orchitis inflammation of testes
orchi/o testis
orchialgia pain in the testes
orchid/o testis
orchidoptosis downward displacement of the testes
test/o testis
testalgia pain of a testis
perine/o perineum (area between scrotum or vulva and anus)
perineal pertaining to the perineum
prostat/o prostate gland
prostatomegaly enlargement of the prostate gland
spermat/o or sperm/o spermatozoa, sperm cells
spermatocele swelling/hernia containing sperm
spermic pertaining to sperm cells
varic/o dilated vein
varicocele swelling of a dilated vein
vas/o vessel; vas deferens; duct
vasectomy removal of (all or part of) the vas deferens
vesicul/o seminal vesicle
vesiculitis inflammation of the seminal vesicle
-cide killing
spermicide agents that kill sperm
-genesis forming, producing
spermatogenesis forming or producing sperm
-ism condition
anorchism condition without testes
-spadias slit, fissure
hypospadias a fissure under the penis
brachy- short
brachytherapy treatment from a short distance
epi- upon, above
epispadias fissure upon penis
balanitis inflammation of the skin covering the glans penis, caused by bacteria, fungi or a virus
erectile dysfunction repeated inability to initiate or maintain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse
hypogonadism decrease or lack of hormones normally produced by the gonads
hypospadias congenital abnormality where the opening of the male urethra is on the undersurface of the penis instead of at its tip
phimosis stenosis or narrowing of foreskin so that it cannot be retracted over the glans penis
priapism prolonged and often painful erection of the penis, which occurs without sexual stimulation
prostatitis acute or chronic inflammation of the prostate
testicular abnormalities any of the various disorders that affect the testes
anorchism absence of one of both testicles
epididymitis inflammation of the epididymis
hydrocele swelling of the sac surrounding the testes that is typically harmless
orchitis painful swelling of one or both testes, commonly associated with mumps that develop after puberty
spermatocele abnormal, fluid-filled sac that develops in the epididymis and may or may not contain sperm
testicular mass new tissue growth that appears on one or both testes and may be malignant or benign
testicular torsion spontaneous twisting of a testicle within the scrotum, leading to a decrease in blood flow to the affected testicle
varicocele swelling and distension of veins of the spermatic cord, somewhat resembling varicose veins of the legs
sterility inability to produce offspring; in the male, inability to fertilize the ovum
digital rectal examination screening test that assesses the rectal wall surface for lesions or evaluates abnormalities of the pelvic area
orchiectomy removal of one or both testicles
circumcision removal of the foreskin, or fold of skin covering the tip (glans) of the penis
orchiopexy fixation of the testes in the scrotum
prostatectomy removal of all or part of the prostate
transurethral resection of prostate excision of the prostate gland by inserting a special endoscope through the urethra and into the bladder to remove small pieces of tissue from the prostate gland
urethroplasty reconstruction of the urethra to relieve stricture or narrowing
vasectomy removal of all or a segment of the vas deferent for male sterilization
prostate-specific antigen blood test used to detest prostatic disorders, especially prostate cancer
semen analysis test that analyzes a semen sample for volume, sperm count, motility, and morphology to evaluate fertility or verify sterilization after vasectomy
prostate ultrasound US using an ultrasound probe inserted through the rectum to evaluate the prostate
scrotal ultrasound US used to assess the contents of the scrotum, including the testicles, epididymis, and vas deferens
scrotum external sac where the 2 testis are found
testes produce testosterone
seminiferous tubules small tubes that twist and coil, produce sperm
epididymis single, tightly coiled tube lying over each teste, stores sperm after it leaves the seminiferous tubules, first duct through which sperm passes after its production in the testes
vas deferens formed by the epididymis, also called seminal duct, narrow tube that passes through the inguinal canal into the abdominal cavity
seminal vesicle contains nutrients that support sperm viability and produces about 60% of the seminal fluid ejaculated during sex
coitus sex
prostate gland triple-lobed organ fused to the base of the bladder that secretes a thin, alkaline substance that accounts for 30% of seminal fluid
bulbourethral (cowper) glands two pea-shaped structures, provide the alkaline fluid necessary for sperm viability
penis male organ of copulation, composed of erectile tissue
urethra expels semen and urine from the body
glans penis enlarged tip of the penis
prepuce foreskin, moveable hood of skin that covers the glans penis
urology branch of medicine concerned with the male reproductive system as well as urinary disorders in both males and females
urologist physician who specializes in diagnosis and treatment of genitourinary disorders
gonorrhea caused by bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoea. most common symptom in men is painful urination and white discharge, women commonly asymptomatic if symptoms occur it would be vaginal discharge or pelvic pain, could cause blindness in babies, could cause PID
dysuria painful urination
leukorrhea white discharge
cystitis inflammation of bladder
arthritis inflamed joints
chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis, most prevalent &one of most damaging, "silent disease", mayhave whitedischarge from penis, inflammation of cervix, could leadto sterility/transfer to baby, treated w/ antibiotics but not usually found until theres irrevesible damage
syphilis Treponema pallidum, could become chronic and multi systemic, chancre with hard edges in first phase, multi symptomatic 2nd phase (hard to diagnose), 3rd phase is latent (symptoms of blindness, mental disorder, death), antibiotic therapy could treat
genital herpes red,blisterlike painful lesions in genitals, type2 herpes virus, can cause oral sores from oral sex, fluid in blisters infectious and contain virus, associated with viral shedding. lesions in men: glans/foreskin/shaft. females: vagina/butt/thighs. no cure
viral shedding virus is present on the skin of the infected patient and can be transmitted to sexual partners even when no lesions are present, could be transferred to baby during birth, could cause death of infant
Genital warts caused by HPV, could be small and unnoticeable or large and in clusters. females: on vulva, in vagina, on cervix. males: penis or around rectum. surgical excision or freezing (could disappear on their own)
condylomata, condylomas genital warts
HPV known to increase risk of cancers (penile, vaginal, cervical and anal). also cause a much greater incidence of miscarriages. HPV 16 is high risk and often leads to cervical cancer. no treatment to eliminate virus, only to treat warts. vaccine available
trichomoniasis Trichomonas vaginalis (protozoan): symptoms more common in females (vaginitis, urethritis, cystitis, frothy yellow green smelly discharge, itching). males have irritation in penis, mild discharge, slight dysuria. should treat both partners
benign prostatic hyperplasia/hypertrophy commonly associated with aging process. as prostate enlarges, it decreases the urethral lumen, and complete voiding of urine becomes difficult. urine that remains in bladder becomes bacteria breeding ground. bladder and kidney infections may result
cystitis bladder infection
nephritis kidney infection
cryptorchidism failure of testes to descend into the scrotal sac prior to birth, commonly causes inguinal hernia. correction could be surgical suspension of testes in scrotum (usually done before child is 2).
orchiopexy surgical suspension of testes in the scrotum. common treatment for cryptorchidism
prostate cancer incidence increases with age, difficulty starting to urinate and stopping, dysuria, urinary frequency and hematuria. blood test for prostate-specific antigen and periodic digital rectal examination.
hesitancy difficulty starting urination
radical prostatectomy removal of the entire prostate
brachytherapy radioactive seeds are placed directly in the malignant tissue (prostate cancer)
external beam radiation (teletherapy) high energy x-ray beams are generated by a machine and directed at the tumor from outside the body to destroy prostate tissue
combined hormonal therapy administering antiandrogenic agents as well as hormones that deplete the body of testicular hormones, effective in treating early stages of prostate cancer
castration (bilateral orchiectomy) surgical removal of the testes
testicular cancer most common form of cancer in young adult males, could be asymptomatic, swelling, enlargement or lump in testes, testicular pain or discomfort. responsive to treatment if found early. men should perform testicular self examination monthly.
gynecomastia enlargement of breast tissue
metastasized cancer spread throughout the body
Created by: arehberg