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HSCI 131

Chapter 12 Female Reproductive System

external genitalia sex, or reproductive, organs visible on the outside of the body
gestation length of time from conception to birth
lactation production and release of milk by mammary glands
orifice mouth; entrance, or outlet of any anatomical structure
amni/o amnion (amniotic sac)
amniocentesis surgical puncture of the amniotic sac
cervic/o neck; cervix
cervicitis inflammation of the cervix
colp/o vagina
colposcopy visual examination of the vagina
vagin/o vagina
vaginocele vaginal hernia
galact/o or lact/o milk
galactopoiesis production of milk
lactogen forming or producing milk
gynec/o woman, female
gynecologist physician specializing in treating disorders of the female reproductive system
hyster/o uterus (womb)
hysterectomy removal of the uterus
metri/o or metr/o uterus (womb)
endometrial pertaining to the lining of the uterus
uter/o uterus (womb)
uterovaginal relating to the uterus and vagina
mamm/o or mast/o breast
mammogram radiograph of the breast
mastopexy surgical fixation of the breast
men/o menses, menstruation
menorrhagia bursting forth menstruation
metroptosis prolapse or downward displacement of the uterus
nat/o birth
prenatal pertaining to the time period before birth
oophor/o ovary
oophoroma ovarian tumor
ovari/o ovary
ovariorrhexis rupture of an ovary
perine/o perineum
perineorrhaphy suture of the perineum
salping/o tube (usually fallopian or eustachian)
salpingoplasty surgical repair of a fallopian tube
-arche beginning
menarche beginning of menstruation
-cyesis pregnancy
pseudocyesis false pregnancy
-gravida pregnant woman
multigravida woman who has been pregnant more than once
-para to bear (offspring)
nullipara woman who has never produced a viable offspring
-salpinx tube (usually fallopian or eustachian)
hemosalpinx blood in a fallopian tube
-tocia childbirth; labor
dystocia difficult childbirth
-version turning
ante- before, in front of
anteversion tipping or turning forward of an organ
dys- bad; painful
dysmenorrhea painful menstruation
endo- in; within
endometritis inflammation of tissue within the uterus
multi- many
multipara woman who has delivered more than one viable infant regardless of whether the offspring was born alive
post- after
primi- first
primigravida woman during her first pregnancy
atresia congenital absence or closure of a normal body opening, such as a vagina
choriocarcinoma malignant neoplasm of the uterus or at the site of an ectopic pregnancy
dyspareunia occurrence of pain during sexual intercourse
endocervicitis inflammation of the mucous lining of the cervix uteri
retroversion turning or state of being turned back, especially an entire organ, such as the uterus being tipped from its normal position
uterine fibroids benign tumors composed of muscle and fibrous tissue that develop in the uterus
sterility inability of the female to become pregnant or the male to impregnate the female
abortion termination of pregnancy before the embryo or fetus is capable of surviving outside the uterus
abruptio placentae premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall before the third stage of labor
breech presentation common abnormality of delivery in which the fetal buttocks or feet present first rather than the head
down syndrome genetic condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46 and occurs wen there is an extra copy of chromosome 21, which causes delays in the way a child develops mentally and physically
eclampsia most serious form of toxemia during pregnancy
ectopic pregnancy pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum does not reach the uterine cavity but becomes implanted on any tissue other than the lining of the uterine cavity, such as fallopian tube, an ovary, the abdomen, or even the cervix uteri
placenta previa obstetric complication in which the placenta is attached close to or covers the cervical canal that results in bleeding during labor when the cervix dilates
intrauterine device (IUD) small, T shaped device inserted by a physician inside the uterus to prevent pregnancy
cerclage suturing of the cervix to prevent it from dilating prematurely during pregnancy, thus decreasing the chance of a spontaneous abortion
cesarean section incision of the abdomen and uterus to remove the fetus
colpocleisis surgical closure of the vaginal canal
conization excision of a cone-shaped piece of tissue, such as mucosa of the cervix, for histological examination
cordocentesis sampling of fetal blood drawn from the umbilical vein and performed under ultrasound guidance
cryosurgery process of freezing tissue to destroy cells
dilation and curettage (D&C) widening of the cervical canal with a dilator and scraping of the uterine endometrium with a curette
hysterectomy excision of the uterus
subtotal hysterectomy hysterectomy where the cervix, ovaries, and fallopian tubes remain
total hysterectomy hysterectomy where the cervix is removed but the ovaries and fallopian tubes remain
total plus bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy total (complete) hysterectomy, including removal of the uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes and ovaries
laparoscopy visual examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope through one or more small incisions in the abdominal wall, usually at the umbilicus
lumpectomy excision of a small primary breast tumor (or "lump") and some of the normal tissue that surrounds it
mammoplasty surgical reconstruction of the breast(s) to change the size, shape, or position
breast augmentation insertion of a breast prosthesis (filled with silicone gel or saline) beneath the skin or beneath the pectorals major muscle
breast reduction breast reduction to reduce the size of a large, pendulous breast
mastectomy excision of the entire breast
total (simple) mastectomy excision of the entire breast, nipple, areola, and the involved overlying skin
modified radical mastectomy excision of the entire breast, including the lymph nodes in the underarm (axillary dissection)
radical mastectomy excision of the entire breast, all underarm lymph nodes, and chest wall muscles under the breast
reconstructive breast surgery creation of a breast-shaped mound to replace a breast that has been removed due to cancer or other disease
tissue (skin) expansion common breast reconstruction technique in which a balloon expander is inserted beneath the skin and chest muscle, saline solution is gradually injected to increase size, and the expander is then replaced with a more permanent implant
transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flap surgical creation of a skin flap using skin and fat from the lower half of the abdomen, which is passed under the skin to the breast area, and then shaping the abdominal tissue (flap) into a natural looking breast and suturing it into place
tubal ligation procedure that ties (ligates) the fallopian tubes to prevent pregnancy
amniocentesis transabdominal puncture of the amniotic sac under ultrasound guidance using a needle (position verified on a monitor screen) and syringe to remove amniotic fluid
colposcopy visual examination of the vagina and cervix with an optical magnifying instrument
insufflation delivery of pressurized air or gas into a cavity, chamber or organ to allow visual examination, remove an obstruction, or apply medication
tubal insufflation test for patency of the uterine tubes made by transuterine insufflation with carbon dioxide
pelvimetry measurement of pelvic dimensions to determine whether the head of the fetus will be able to pass through the bony pelvis to allow delivery
chorionic villus sampling (CVS) sampling of placental tissues for prenatal diagnosis of potential genetic defects
endometrial biopsy removal of a sample of uterine endometrium for microscopic study
Papanicolaou (pap) test cytological study to detect abnormal cells sloughed from the cervix and vagina, usually obtained during routine pelvic examination
hysterosalpingography radiography and, usually, fluoroscopy of the uterus and uterine tubes following injection of a contract medium
mammography radiographic examination of the breast to screen for breast cancer
ultrasonography use of high-frequency sound waves directed at soft tissue and reflected as echoes to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure
transvaginal ultrasonography US of the pelvic area performed with a probe inserted into the vagina, which provides sharper images of pathological and normal structures within the pelvis
vulva external genitalia collectively (labia minora and majora, clitoris, bartholin glands, mons pubis, pubic bone)
perineum the area between the vaginal orifice and the anus
ova female reproductive cells
ovaries almond-shaped glands located in the pelvic cavity, one on each side of the uterus
graafian follicles found in the ovaries; each contain an ovum
ovulation when an ovum ripens, the mature follicle moves to the surface of the ovary, ruptures, and releases the ovum
corpus luteum small yellow mass that secretes estrogen and progesterone
uterus contains and nourishes the embryo from the time the fertilized egg is implanted until the fetus is born, normally in position of anteflexion (bent forward) and contains the fundus, body and cervix
fundus upper rounded portion of uterus
cervix neck of the uterus, portion that opens into the vagina
vagina muscular tube that extends from the cervix to the exterior of the body. lubricated by bartholins gland, discharges menstrual flow, receptor of semen, sex organ
episiotomy surgically incising the perineum to enlarge the vaginal opening for baby delivery
adipose tissue enlarges the size of the breast until they reach full maturity
lactiferous duct drain milk producing glands and open on the tip of the raised nipple
gestation pregnancy
parturition childbirth
embryo what the child is referred to up to the third month of pregnancy
fetus what the unborn child is referred to from the third month of pregnancy until birth
stage of dilation stage one of labor: begins with uterine contractions and terminates when there is complete dilation of the cervix (10cm)
stage of expulsion stage two of labor: the time from complete cervical dilation to birth of the baby
placental stage last stage of labor: AKA afterbirth: begins shortly after childbirth when the uterine contractions discharge the placenta from the uterus
amenorrhea absence of a period
climacteric change of life: period in which symptoms of approaching menopause occur
vaginal atrophy thinning
gynecology branch of medicine concerned with diseases of the female reproductive organs and breasts
obstetrics branch of medicine that manages the health of a woman and her fetus during pregnancy and childbirth
puerperium period of adjustment after childbirth during which the reproductive organ os the mother return to their normal non pregnant state. usually lasts 6-8 weeks and ends with the first ovulation
dysmenorrhea menstrual pain and tension
metrorrhagia irregular uterine bleeding between menstrual periods
menorrhagia profuse or prolonged bleeding during regular menstruation
premenstrual syndrome PMS: headache, fatigue, mood changes, anxiety, depression, crying spells, water retention
endometriosis presence of functional endometrial tissue outside of the uterus (known as implants, lesions or growths)
pelvic inflammatory disease PID: inflammation of the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries and adjacent pelvic structures usually caused by a bacterial infection
pathogens disease producing organisms
septicemia bacteria in the blood
vaginitis localized infections and inflammation confined to the vagina: itching, painful intercourse, bad smelling discharge
urethritis urethral inflammation
moniliasis yeast infection
mycostatics anti fungal agents that suppress growth of fungi
breast cancer carcinoma of the breast, most common malignancy of women in US
nulliparous women who have never borne children
Created by: arehberg
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