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Sociology Test 1 BAC

Chapter 1 Key Terms

Applied Sociology The use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations.
Basic Sociology Sociological inquiry conducted with the objective of gaining a more profound knowledge of the fundamental aspects of social phenomena. Also called pure sociology.
Casual Logic The relationship between a condition or variable and a particular consequence, with one event leading to the other.
Clinical Sociology The use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of altering social relationships or restructuring social institutions.
Code of Ethics The standards of acceptable behavior developed by and for embers of a profession.
Conflict Perspective A sociological approach that assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of tension between groups over power or the allocation of resources , including housing,money,access to services, and political representation.
Content Analysis The systematic coding and objective recording of data, guided by some rationale.
Control Group Objects in an experiment who are not introduced to the independent variable by the researcher.
Control Variable A factor held constant to test the relative impact of an independent variable.
Correlation A correlation exists when change in one variable coincides with a change in the other. Correlations are an indication that causality may be present; they do not necessarily causation.
Cultural Capital Noneconomic goods such as family background and education, which are reflected in a knowledge of language and the arts.
Dependent Variable The variable in a casual relationship that is subject to the influence of another variable.
Double Consciousness The division of an individual's identity into two or more social realities.
Dysfunction An element or process of a society that may actually disrupt the social system or reduce its stability.
Ethnography The study of an entire social setting through extended systematic observation.
Experiment An artificially created situation that allows the researcher to manipulate variables.
Experimental Group Subjects in an experiment who are exposed to an independent variable introduced by a researcher.
Feminist Perspective A sociological approach that views inequality in gender as central to all behavior and organization.
Functionalist Perspective A sociological approach that emphasizes the way that the parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability.
Hawthorne Effect The unintended influence of observes or experiments on subjects of research.
Hypothesis A speculative statement about the relationship between two or more variables.
Ideal Type A constant or model that serves as a measuring rod agasint which is actual cases can be evaluated.
Independent Variable The variable in a casual relationship that , when altered, causes or influences a change in a second variable.
Interactionist Perspective A sociological approach that generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction.
Interview A face to face or telephone questioning of a respondent to obtain desired information.
Latent Function An unconscious or unintended function; hidden purpose.
Macrosociology Sociological investigation that concentrates in large - scale phenomena or entire civilizations.
Manifest Function An open, stated, and conscious function.
Microsociology Sociological investigation that stresses the study of small groups, often through experimental means.
Natural Science The study of the physical features of nature and the ways in which they interact and change.
Noneverbal Communication The sending of messages through the use of posture, facial expressions, and gestures.
Observation A research technique in which an investigator collects information through direct participation, by closely watching a group or community.
Operating Definition An explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a researcher to assess the concept.
Quantitative Research Research that collects and reports data primarily in numerical form.
Qualitative Research Research that relies more on what scientists see in the field or in naturalistic settings than on statistical data.
Questionare A printed or written form used to obtain information for a respondent.
Random Sample A sample for which every member of the entire population has the same chance of being selected.
Reliability The extent to which a measure produces consistent results.
Research Design A detailed plan or method for obtaining data scientifically.
Sample A selection from a larger population that is statistically representative of that population.
Science The body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation.
Scientific Method A systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem.
Secondary Analysis A variety of research techniques that make use of previously collected and publicly accessible information and data.
Social Capital The collective benefit of social networks, which are built on reciprocal trust.
Social Science The study of various aspects of human society.
Sociological Imagination An awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society, both today and in the past.
Sociology The scientific study of social behavior and human groups.
Survey A study, generally in the form of an interview or questionnaire, that provides researchers with information about hot people think and act.
Theory In sociology, a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior.
Validity The degrees to which a measure or scale rule reflects the phenomenon under study.
Variable A measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions.
Verstehen The German word for "understanding" or "insight"; used by Max Weber to stress the need for sociologists to take into account the subjective meanings people attach to their actions.
Created by: beth96



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