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Reading Praxis

Tone the mood or attitude conveyed in the writing
Situational Irony occurs when there is incongruity between what is expected to happen and what actually occurs
Point of View refers to the person who is telling us the story
Narrator the person who describes the characters and events, the author is not it
First Person Narrator tells the story from his or her own point of view using I
Second Person Point of View the writer uses the pronoun you, and thus the reader becomes a character in the story, thinking the thoughts and performing the actions of the main characters
Third Person Narrator the author uses the pronouns he, she, and they to tell the story
Omniscient they know everything about the characters and tell us what the characters think and feel
Limited the author still uses the third person pronouns but only imparts the thoughts and feelings of one character in the story
Perspective considered the narrator’s attitude throughout the story
Theme you have to evaluate the whole consider the questions the story has raised, the points it has made, and the positions it has taken
Nonfiction truth based recount of actual events
4 Most Common types of Essays descriptive, narrative, expository, persuasive
Descriptive describing a person, place or thing
Expository exploring and explaining an idea or position
Persuasive arguing a specific point of view
Satire a form of comedy in which the writer exposes and ridicules someone or something in order to inspire change
Verbal Irony the intended meaning is the opposite of the expressed meaning
Hyperbole extreme exaggeration
Autobiography/Memoir the author will tell the story of his or her life
Journal Writing personal type of writing that requires a student to write down his or her thoughts with a degree of regular frequency
Inference draw a logical conclusion
Word Choice/Diction the specific language the writer uses to describe people, places, and things
Word Choice Includes these Forms particular words or phrases a writer uses, the way words are arranged in a sentence, repetition of words or phrases, inclusion of particular details
Style the distinctive way in which a writer uses language to inform or promote and idea
Emotional Language target’s a reader’s emotion (fears, beliefs, values, prejudices) instead of appealing to a reader’s reason or critical thinking
Thesis Statement main idea of the essay
Emotive Poem aims to capture a mood or emotion and to make readers feel that mood or emotion
Lyrical Poem short, emotional poems that are personal from a single speaker
Imagistic Poem aims to capture a moment and help us experience that moment sensually (through our senses)
Narrative Poem tells stories
Argumentative Poem explores an idea
Elegy Poem laments the loss of someone or something
Ode Poem celebrates a person, place, thing, or event
Rhyme the repetition of identical or similar stressed sounds at the end of a word
Exact Rhymes share the same last syllables
Half Rhymes share only the final consonants
Eye Rhymes the word endings are spelled the same but the words don’t sound the same
Alliteration the repetition of sounds
Onomatopoeia a word that sounds like its meaning, the sound is the definition of the word
Assonance the repetition of vowel sounds within a sentence or a phrase to create an internal rhyme
Meter the number of syllables in a line and how the stress falls on those syllables
Iambic Meter one of the most common metrical patterns, the stress falls on every other syllable
Stanzas poets must decide how much information belongs on each line and when those lines should be broken into this
Punctuation should pause only when it tells you to pause
Line Breaks and Stanzas have Two Purposes to call attention to the worlds at the end of each line, to set aside each group or words as a distinct idea
Concrete/Visual Poetry the words create a visual effect
Rhymed/Metered/Free Verse confined by the structure,
Sonnet composed of 14 lines usually written in iambic pentameter (five groups of syllables known as feet per line)
Quatrains stanza of four lines
Couplet a pair of rhyming lines
Ballad a poem that usually tells a story and is often meant to be sung
Villanelle 5 three line stanzas with an ABA rhyme scheme and final quatrain with an ABAA rhyme
Blank or Metered Verse guided only by meter, not rhyme
Limerick 5 line poem with the rhyme scheme AABBA, usually funny and occasionally obscene
Haikus unrhymed poems of three lines and 17 syllables (line 1 has 5 syllables, line 2 has 7, and line three has 5)
Free Verse poetry that is free from the restrictions of meter and rhyme
5 Basic Reference Works almanac, atlas, dictionary, encyclopedia, thesaurus
Almanac annually published resource that contains basic information concerning the calendar
Atlas geographical resource that is full of maps
Dictionary definitions for all the words of a language, listed alphabetically, includes pronunciation, etymology, phonetics
Encyclopedia reference work that provides information about a wide variety of subjects from all branches of knowledge
Thesaurus provides synonyms and antonyms for the words of a language, listed alphabetically
Primary Sources materials are generated from direct witnesses of an event (autobiographies, diaries, and personal letters)
Footnote usually a note of explanation or reference, appears at the bottom of a page in a document
Endnotes similar to footnotes but are listed at the end of the chapter or work
Bibliography list of works cited, usually at the end of a resource
Citation sometimes an abbreviation of the reference is used within the text
5 Most Common Strategies chronological order, order of importance, comparison and contrast, cause and effect, problem and solution
Chronological Order events by the order in which they happened, from beginning to end
Order of Importance organizes ideas by rank instead of by time
Comparison and Contrast two things or ideas side by side to show the ways in which they are similar or different
Point by Point Method each aspect of idea A is followed by a comparable aspect of idea B, so that the paragraph resembles this pattern ABABAB
Block Method a writer presents several aspects of idea A, followed by several aspects of idea B
Cause and Effect ideas to explain why an event took place (cause) and what happened as a result (effect)
Contributing Cause a factor that helps to make something happen but can’t make that thing happen by itself
Sufficient Cause an event that is strong enough to make the event happen
Problem and Solution an issue at the beginning of the text and then attempts to resolve it throughout the text
Thesis Statement element of a text that best defines its structure, tell the reader what the subject is, inform the reader about what the writer thinks and feels about the subject, use clear, active language
Support of a Thesis Statement provided with quotes, examples, or information from a research source that backs up the thesis
Transitional Words help change the direction of the text
Conclusion Statement the thesis statement at the end of a text, drawing on all the reasoning that was used as support throughout the text
Emerging Readers describes students encountering print in an early development stage, refers to the continual process by which students learn to read
Alphabetic Principle letters represent the sounds of a language
Direct Instruction straightforward method of passing information from a teacher to a student
Independent Reading students read on their own, it can help students improve comprehension and learn vocabulary, as well as develop a passion for reading and learning
Scaffolding a critical concept in pedagogy for all subjects and all grade levels, provides support for students to help them move toward literacy independence
Sharing Reading students reading along while an expert reads fluently
Sharing Writing a composition of a text created by the teacher and the students
Sight Words words that students should be able to recognize as soon as the student sees them in print
Social Interaction the importance of the surrounding environment in literacy development
Reader Response puts the focus on the reader of a text and his or her experience with it
Metacognition thinking about thinking, thinking about how the text affects them directly
Text Innovation/Rewrites strategy to help struggling readers with existing text materials that may be too challenging for them
Word Wall collection of words organized in a system and displayed visibly in a classroom
Phonology system of sounds in a language
Phoneme each of these single sounds
Sound Segmentation requires students to separate the sounds in a word by speaking each of the sounds separately in the order in which they appear in the world
Syllable a unit that is larger than a phoneme, they have at least one vowel sound
Syllabication the process of splitting a word into its separate syllables (or putting syllables together to form new words)
Running Record one of the most common and efficient tools to track a student’s ability to recognize words
Accuracy Rate determine whether the text is easy enough or too frustrating for the reader, expressed as a percentage, the rate can be calculated using the formula (accuracy rate= {total words read
Independent the accuracy rate is between 95% to 100%, the student can read the text on his or her own
Instructional the accuracy rate is between 90% to 95% the student can read with help
Frustrational the accuracy rate is below 90%, the students can’t read the book yet
Error Frequency Rate an approximation for the number of words read correctly compared to the number of incorrectly read words
Rereading/Repeating Reading helpful for readers of every age
Making Connections one of the most proficient ways to improve comprehension of a text
3 Basic Ways a Student can make a Connection with a Text text to self, text to text, text to world
Text to Self require students to apply the information in the book to their own personal experience in their lives
Text to Text require students to relate the text that they have read to other texts
Text to World require students to think about how a text relates to the world in a larger context
Prior Knowledge proven to be a critical element for a student’s comprehension
Retell a Story his or her own words is one of the most basic methods to ensure comprehension of the story
Guided Reading a student or students reading a book that was carefully and thoughtfully selected for their level by the teacher
KWL (Know, Want to Learn, Learned) Chart incredibly effective study tool to aid in a student’s comprehension
Graphic Organizers provide students with a tool for comprehension, helping a student map out the main idea and supporting details of a passage to helping them visualize the time line of events from a text
Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review (SQ3R) strategy is intended to help a student’s comprehension of a text using five steps
5 Steps of SQ3R skim, what information the chapter is trying to provide to the reader or determine what questions should be answered by the text, read through the text, say or write their own phrase that sums up the section and answers the questions posed earlier
2 Basic Parts of a Sentence subject and its predicate
Subject person, place, or thinking in a sentence that is performing the action
Predicate the action that is being done by the subject in the sentence
Complete Predicate the action of what she or he is doing
Simple Predicate main verb in the sentence
Noun a person, place, thing or idea
Proper Noun a noun that names a specific person, place, thing, or idea, they are always capitalized
Verb action word of a sentence, past/present/future
Adjectives and Adverbs add spice to writing, they are words that describe or modify other words
Pronoun a word that takes the place of a noun or another pronoun
Personal Pronouns they are taking place of a noun
Possessive Pronouns they are simply referring to the noun
Prepositions that express the relationship in time or space between words in a sentence
Conjunction a part of a sentence that joins two words, such as and/or
Dependent Clauses part of a sentence that has its own subject and verb
Independent Clauses part of a sentence with their own subject and verb, they can stand by themselves as sentences
Phrase group of two or more words that cannot stand by itself as a sentence but adds to an existing sentence
Participial Phrase short descriptive phrase at the beginning or end of a sentence
Prepositional Phrase short phrase that helps describes a verb or adjective within a sentence
Appositive Phrase short phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun using other nouns
Participle a word that is usually associated as a verb but is used as an adjective
Infinitive a verb in the form to + verb
Simple Sentence one independent clause and no depended clauses
Compound Sentence multiple independent clauses in the sentence, but it has no dependent clauses
Complex Sentence one independent clause and at least one dependent clause
Compound Complex Sentence multiple independent clauses in the sentence, as well as at least one dependent clause
Sentence Fragment its name suggests, an incomplete sentence
Declarative Sentence makes a declaration, ends in a period
Interrogative Sentence asks a question, ends in a question mark
Exclamatory Sentence includes an exclamation, ends in an exclamation mark
Imperative Sentence gives a command, ends with a period or an exclamation mark
Orthography the proper way to use a written system of language, including proper spelling
Morphology describes the structure of words and their parts
Morpheme smallest unit of sound with meaning
Affix morpheme that is attached to the stem of a word, creating an entirely new word
2 Types of Affixes prefixes and suffixes
Prefix the beginning part of the word that helps identify its meaning
Suffix the ending part of the word that helps identify its meaning
Root a word is the main part of a word that gives it the meaning, without any prefixes or suffixes
Semantics the specific meaning or meanings of a word in a written language
Antonym word that has an opposite meaning
Synonym a word that has the same meaning as another word
Idiom a word or group of words that cannot be interpreted literally
Homonym a word that sounds like another but has a different spelling and meaning
Context ability to determine the meaning of a word
Simile comparison using like or as
Metaphor more powerful, makes a comparison directly
Personification the attribution of human characteristics to animals or objects
Imagery the representation of sensory experience through language
Symbolism convey the themes of their stories
Symbol a person, place, or thing invested with special meaning or significance
Style more than just a figurative language
Picture/Writing Drawing students begin to express their thoughts via drawings and pictures
Random Letter students begin to string letters together with their pictures
Invented Spelling may use the beginning letter to represent a word
Phonetic Stage begins to write words with correct beginning and ending sounds
Transitional Stage students are beginning to write words based on the way that they sound
Conventional Writing Stage able to spell most words correctly even if they spell some longer words phonetically
Created by: clfa228
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