Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

HSCI 131

Chapter 11 Urinary System

electrolyte mineral salt (sodium, potassium, or calcium) that carries an electrical charge when in solution
filtrate fluid that passes from the blood through the capillary walls of the glomeruli into Bowman capsule
nitrogenous waste product of protein metabolism that include urea, uric acid, creatine, creatinine, and ammonia
peristaltic wave sequence of rhythmic contraction of smooth muscle of a hollow organ to force material forward and prevent backflow
peritoneum serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and covers most of the organs within the cavity
pH symbol that expresses alkalinity or acidity of a solution
plasma liquid portion of blood that is filtered by the nephrons to remove dissolved wastes
albumin/o albumin; protein
albuminoid resembling albumin
azot/o nitrogenous compounds
azotemia nitrogenous compounds in the blood
bacteria/o bacteria
bacteriuria bacteria in urine
cyst/o or vesic/o bladder
cystoscope instrument for examining the bladder
vesicocele hernia of the bladder
glomerul/o glomerulus
glomerulopathy disease of the glomerulus
kal/i potassium (electrolyte)
hypokalemia abnormally low concentration of potassium in the blood
keton/o ketone bodies (acids and acetones)
ketonuria presence of ketone bodies in the urine
lith/o stone, calculus
lithotripsy crushing of a stone
meat/o opening
meatotomy incision of the urinary meatus
nephr/o or ren/o kidney
nephropexy fixation of kidney
renal pertaining to the kidney
noct/o night
nocturia excessive and frequent urination after going to bed
olig/o scanty (decreased production)
py/o pus
pyorrhea flow/discharge of pus
pyel/o renal pelvis
-plasty surgical repair
ur/o urine, urinary tract
urolith stone in the urinary tract
ureter/o ureter
-ectasis dilation, expansion
urethr/o urethra
-stenosis narrowing
lithogenesis forming or producing a stone
-iasis abnormal condition
-uria urine
polyuria much (excretion of) urine
retroperitoneal pertaining to the area behind the peritoneum
anuria absence of urine production or output
bladder neck obstruction blockage at the base of the bladder that reduces or prevents urine from passing into the urethra
cystocele prolapsing or downward displacement of the bladder due to weakening of the supporting tissues between a woman's bladder and vagina
dysuria painful or difficult urination, commonly referred to burning sensation while peeing
end-stage renal disease any type of kidney disease in which there is little or no remaining kidney function, requiring the patient to undergo dialysis or kidney transplant for survival
enuresis involuntary discharge of urine
fistula abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface or from one organ to another
hydronephrosis abnormal dilation of the renal pelvis and the calyces of one or both kidneys due to pressure from accumulated urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract
interstitial cystitis chronic inflammation of the bladder wall that is not caused by bacterial infection and is not responsive to conventional antibiotic therapy
nephrotic syndrome loss of large amounts of plasma protein, usually albumin, through urine due to an increased permeability of the glomerular membrane
neurogenic bladder impairment of bladder control due to brain or nerve conduction
polycystic kidney disease inherited disease in which sacs of fluid called cysts develop in the kidneys
urgency sensation of the need to void immediately
vesicoureteral reflux disorder caused by the failure of urine to pass through the ureters to the bladder, usually due to impairment of the valve between the ureter and bladder or obstruction in the ureter
Wilms tumor rapidly developing malignant neoplasm of the kidney that usually occurs in children
dialysis mechanical filtering process used to cleanse the blood of toxic substances, like nitrogenous wastes, when kidneys fail to function properly
hemodialysis type of dialysis in which an artificial kidney machine receives waste-filled blood, filters the blood, and returns the clean blood to the patient's bloodstream
peritoneal dialysis type of dialysis in which toxic substances are removed from the body by using the peritoneal membrane as the filter by perfusing (flushing) the peritoneal cavity with a warm, sterile chemical solution
kidney transplant replacement of a diseased kidney with one that is supplied by a compatible donor (usually a family member or a cadaver who has donated the kidney prior to death)
nephropexy fixation of a floating or mobile kidney
nephrostomy the passage of a tube through the skin and into the renal pelvis to drain urine to a collecting receptacle outside the body when the ureters are unable to do so
stent placement insertion of a mesh tube into a natural passage conduit in the body to prevent or counteract a disease-induced, localized flow constriction
ureteral stent placement insertion of a thin narrow tube into the ureter to prevent or treat obstruction of urine flow from the kidney
urethrotomy incision of a urethral stricture
electromyography measures the contraction of muscles that control urination using electrodes placed in the rectum and urethra
cystoscopy examination of the urinary bladder for evidence of pathology, obtaining biopsies of tumors or other growths, and removal of polyps using a specialized endoscope
blood urea nitrogen determines the amount of nitrogen in blood that comes from urea, a waste product of protein metabolism
culture and sensitivity determines the causative organism of an infection and identifies how the organism responds to various antibiotics
urinalysis urine screening test that includes physical observation, chemical tests, and microscopic evaluation
ultrasonography high-frequency waves (ultrasound) are directed at soft tissue and reflected as echoes to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure
bladder ultrasound US produces images of the bladder to measure pre- and postvoid residual urine, thus determining bladder volume and potentially identifying incomplete bladder emptying
intravenous pyelography imaging of the urinary tract after IV injection of a contrast medium
nuclear scan technique in which a radiopharmaceutical called a tracer is introduced into the body (inhaled, ingested, or injected) and a specialized camera is used to produce images of organs and structures
renal nuclear scan nuclear scan of the kidneys used to determine their size, shape and position
voiding cystourethrography x-ray of the bladder and urethra performed before, during and after voiding using a contract medium to enhance imaging
erythropoietin hormone secreted by the kidney that acts on bone marrow to stimulate production of red blood cells when blood oxygen levels are low
nephrons microscopic filtering units of the kidney
hilium an opening near the medial border of the kidney where the renal artery enters and the renal vein exits
renal pelvis formed where the ureter merges with the kidney
ureter there are two. they carry urine in peristaltic waves to the bladder
ureteral orifice where urine enters the bladder
urinary bladder expandable hollow organ that acts as a temporary reservoir for urine
rugae small folds in the bladder that expand as the bladder fills
trigone a triangular area at the base of the bladder that is delineated by the openings of the ureters and the urethra
urethra tube that discharges urine from the bladder
urinary meatus urethral opening
Bowman capsule modified, enlarged extension of the renal tubule that encapsulates the glomerulus
afferent arteriole carries blood to the glomerulus
efferent arteriole carries blood from the glomerulus
peritubular capillaries network of capillaries that surround the renal tubule
4 sections of the renal tubule proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, collecting tubule
3 functions of the nephron filtration, reabsorption, and secretion
describe filtration occurs in the renal corpuscle, where plasma containing water, electrolytes, sugar and other small molecules is forced from the blood within the glomerulus into Bowman capsule to form filtrate. filtrate resembles plasma except the amount of protein is less
describe reabsorption it begins as filtrate travels through the long, twisted pathway of the tubule. most of the water and some of the electrolytes and amino acids are returned to the peritubular capillaries and reenter the circulating blood
describe secretion final stage of urine formation. substances actively secreted from the blood in the peritubular capillaries into the filtrate in the renal tubules. waste products are secreted into the filtrate to be eliminated. collecting tubule>renal pelvis>bladder>pee
urology branch of medicine concerned with urinary disorders and diseases of the male reproductive system
urologist physician who specializes in diagnosis and treatment of genitourinary disorders
nephrology branch of medicine concerned specifically with diseases of the kidney, electrolyte imbalance, renal transplantation, and dialysis therapy
pyelonephritis kidney infection AKA nephritis. inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis. most common form of kidney disease. most often result of infection from bladder.
dysuria painful urination
nephralgia pain in the kidneys
bacteriuria bacteria in the urine
pyuria pus in the urine
hematuria blood in the urine
glomerulonephritis inflammation of the glomerular membrane in the nephrons, causing it to become leaky (PERMEABLE)
proteinuria protein in the urine
hypertension high blood pressure
calculi stones
urolithiasis stones in the urinary tract
nephrolithiasis stones in the kidney
ureterolithiasis stones lodged in the ureters, throbbing pain
colic throbbing pain
refluxes flows backward (urine flowing backward into renal pelvis)
extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy calculi are pulverized using concentrated ultrasound waves (shock waves) directed at the stones from a machine outside the body
percutaneous nephrolithotomy for larger stones. surgeon makes a small incision in the skin and forms an opening in the kidney. then inserts a nephroscope into the kidney to locate and remove the stone
ureteroscopic stone removal no incision is required. using an endoscope fitted with a laser beam to break large stones into smaller ones, fitted with a basket
acute tubular necrosis tubular portion of the nephron is injured by a decrease in blood supply or after the ingestion of toxic chemicals
oliguria scanty urine production
hypercalcemia increased blood levels of calcium
cystectomy removal of the bladder
immunotherapy biological therapy which stimulates the immune system to attack cancer cells
intravenous delivered into the vein
intravesical into the bladder
brachytherapy seeds planted within the tumor uses high energy beams to treat bladder cancer
teletherapy a machine outside the body is used to deliver high energy beams to treat bladder cancer
Created by: arehberg
Popular MCAT sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards