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AP Presidents

George Washington -1st president/unanimously elected, 2 terms -standard of a strong presidency w/ control of foreign policy and the power to veto Congress's legislation. -declared proclamation of neutrality in April 1793, keeping US neutral in European wars.
John Adams -diplomat/signer of Declaration -led country through XYZ affair, Alien and Sedition Acts, VA and Kentucky Resolutions -kept nation out of war
Thomas Jefferson -author of declaration, 1st sec. of state -Revolution of 1800-first time America changed presidential political leadership -responsible of Embargo of 1807 -support of states' rights
James Madison -Father of Constitution -The Federalist Papers, VA Plan -faced pressure from war hawks to end embargo -Led US to War of 1812, concluded in 1814
James Monroe -Era of Good Feelings -Nat. identity grew, westward movement -Monroe Doctrine -America feared int. influence b/c of world-wide rev. fervor after Napoleon's fall -N/S tensions over slavery
Corrupt Bargain of 1824 -Clay, Adams, Jackson, Crawford -Jackson won pop. vote, not majority -Clay threw support to Adams -Adams gave Clay Sec. of State
John Quincy Adams -led active fed. gov. in internal improvements and Nat. Am. affairs -Policies proved unpopular -served in House of Reps., forced debates against slavery
Andrew Jackson -invaded Spanish Florida to quell Nat. Am. rebellions -Defeated British force that invaded New Orleans -popular president (self made Westerner) -Indian Removal Act: fed. enforcement to remove Native American tribes west of Miss. -war against US Bank
Martin Van Buren -established independent treasury -Panic of 1837 -unsuccessful in re-election
William Henry Harrison -W. who fought against Nat. Am. -"Old Tippecanoe" -VP, John Tyler -died of pneumonia after inauguration
John Tyler -States' righter, S, strict constitution -rejected programs of the Whigs -settled Webster-Ashburton Treaty -helped Texas achieve statehood in 1845
James K. Polk -"dark horse" candidate -new independent treasury system -lowered tariff w/ Walker Tariff -Oregon Treaty--49 parallel -Manifest Destiny -acquired CA -led US to Mexican War
Zachary Taylor -Mexican war -Whig -opposed spread of slavery -encouraged territories to organize and seek admission directly as states to avoid issue of slavery
Millard Fillmore -opposition to expansion of slavery and abolitionists activities -supported Compromise of 1850
Franklin Pierce -Dem. from N.H. -supporter of manifest destiny -Kansas-Nebraska Act -opened Canada to greater trade
James Buchanan -backed Lecompton Constitution -denied legal right of states to secede but believed fed. gov. could not legally prevent them.
Election of 1860 -containment of slavery and encouragement of transcontinental rail -Dem. vote split between Douglas and other candidates -Lincoln won election, S. seceded
Lincoln -Lincoln-Douglas Debates won him high nat. regard -N. army defend Union against secessionists -suspended habeas corpus during Civil War -Emancipation Proclamation -10% plan for reconstruction -Gettysburg Address
N. Election of 1864 -Lincoln v. McClellan -Lincoln ran on nat. unity -Sherman's taking of Atlanta helped Lincoln win
Compromise of 1877 -came after 1876 election -neither president won electoral vote -Dem. agreed to give Hayes the president -Hayes promised to show consideration for S. interest, end Reconstruction, aid S. industrialization, withdraw remaining forces from S.
Rutherford B. Hayes -Rep. nominee in 1876 -won election through Compromise of 1877 -removed fed. troops from South -railroad strike in 1877
Ulysses S. Grant -Mexican War, accepted Lee's surrender -Sec. of War
Andrew Johnson -more conservative, opposed legislation that dealt with former slaves -voted Civil Rights Act -violation of Tenure, impeached
Grover Cleveland -first Dem. elected after Civil War -only one elected to 2 non-consecutive terms -vetoed private pension bills to Civil War vets. -signed Interstate Commerce Act -sent fed. troops against striking railroad workers
Cross of Gold Speech -William Jennings Bryan -criticized gold standard, supported coinage of silver
William McKinley -had business support -election over Bryan influenced future political races by setting up interest groups and alliances
Theodore Roosevelt -Rough Rider -trust buster-Sherman Antitrust Act -speak softly and carry a big stick -supported conservation of national resources
William Howard Taft -prosecuted trusts under Sherman Antitrust Act -Dollar Diplomacy -Dept. of Labor
Federal Reserve Act of 1913 -response to Panic of 1907 -need for stable currency supply -divided nation into separate regions w/ federal reserve banks -raised/lowered interest rates
Warren Harding -opposition to League of Nations, low taxes, high tariffs, immigration -return to normalcy -Eugene V. Debs -8 hour work day
Coolidge -avoided responsibility for most of Harding's cabinet scandals -reputation for honesty -believed in leading through inactivity
Hoover -conservative economics -rugged individualism -minimal help from government
FDR -Hundred Days -economic and agricultural recovery
FDR 3rd Term -broke precedent set by Washington -won by narrow margin
Harry Truman -atomic bombs on Japan -banned racial discrimination in fed. hiring and armed forces -Truman Doctrine: containment of communism
Eisenhower -allied commander during WWII -signed truce in 1953 to end Korean War -integration of military forces -sent troops to Little Rock -desegregation movement
Election of 1960 -Nixon nominated by Republicans -Kennedy nominated by Democrats -presidential debates televised -Nixon's negative appearance on tv affected voters perception of him
JFK -1st Catholic president -New Frontier-tax reforms, education aid, emphasis on space program -raised minimum wage -Peace Corps -Cuban Missile Crisis
Lyndon Johnson -promoted Kennedy's agenda through Congress -Civil Rights Act of 1964 -Great Society Program: war against poverty, social and economic welfare legislation
Richard Nixon -Vietnamization -remove US troops from S. Vietnam -Ended draft -Opened China for trade -reduced tension with USSR w/ Salt agreements -Watergate
Watergate -CRP/CREEP -wire taps, presidential tapes, espionage
Gerald Ford -pardoned Nixon -rise to power represented the first use of 25th Amendment
Jimmy Carter -wanted to make a "responsible gov." -reduced unemployment and eased energy crisis -Camp David Accords -Iranian hostage situation
George Bush -led US to success in Gulf War, forcing Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait
Bill Clinton -gun control, strong economy, welfare reform -North American Free Trade Agreement--lift trade barriers between US, Canada, and Mexico -2nd president impeached (Monica)
Reagan -increased military spending -Star Wars -Reaganomics -worked with Gorbachev-reduction of nukes
George W. Bush -No Child Left Behind -Terrorism-Afghanistan and Iraq
Created by: lbielinski