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Psy of Language-CH 2

Linguistic principles

TermDefinition
Duality of Patterning A grammatical concept that is basic to the study language A feature of a communication system in which a small number of meaningless units can be combined into a large number of meaningful units.
Phones Speech sounds
Phonemes Differences in sounds that make a contribution to meaning; they are indicated by slashes
Distinctive features When a feature distinguishes one phoneme from another
Morphology The study of (1) how words are structured (2) how words are put together from smaller parts (3) how language build words and indicate grammar relationships between words
Morpheme The smallest meaningful unit in a language
Phrase-structure rules(PS rules) Part of every language user's knowledge of his or her language is the knowledge of how constituents are put together and categorized in that language
Linguistics productivity Our ability to create and comprehend novel utterances
Within linguistic theory, Langauge is An infinite set of well-formed sentences
Within linguistic theory , a Grammar is A formal device with a finite set of rules that generates the sentences in the language
Deep structure (from PS rules) The level of linguistic structure assumed in transformation grammar (TG) that express the underlying semantic meaning of a sentence
Surface structure (from TG rules) The level of syntactic structure assumed in TG that is closer to the phonetic specification of an utterance.
Derivational theory of complexity(DTC) States the psychological complexity of a sentence is directly proportional to the length of its derivation.
Arbitrariness No intrinsic relationship exist between the set of sounds and the object to which the sounds refer.
Four basic grammatical concepts (1) Duality of patterning (2) Morphology (3) Phrase structure (4) Linguistic productivity
Bresnan's lexical-functional grammar has sometimes been called psychologically realistic grammar
A parameter is a grammatical feature that can be set to any of several values
A distinctive feature is a characteristics of a speech sound whose presence or absence distinguishes the sound from other sounds
Four pervasive properties are duality of patterning, morphology, phrase structure, and linguistic productivity
Created by: bettytseng122
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