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Chapter 16

1-1) What did the hunter-gatherers of Asia use to migrate to the Americas? What was its name? A land-bridge; the Bering Straight.
1-2) What did families do in the potlatch? Why did they do this? They gifted foods and drinks to the community to display rank and prosperity.
1-3) Describe the pueblos that the Anasazi were living in. Villages of large, apartment-style compounds made of stone and adobe or sun-baked clay.
1-4) When did the largest Anasazi pueblo, the Pueblo Bonito, begin? Around 900 A.D.
1-5) The Adena built what in which to bury their dead? They built earthen mounds.
1-6) Cahokia, leading site of Mississippian culture, was lead by priest-rulers. What did the priest-rulers regulate? Farming activities.
1-7) Which tribe would be a good example of a political alliance? The Iroquois, a group of tribes speaking related languages living in the East.
1-8) Which chief helped create the Iroquois League? Chief Hiawatha helped create it, according to legend.
1-9) Where did the Mississippian trade network cover? The Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic coast and from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico.
1-10) What were totems used for? Totems were used as symbols of the unity of a group or clan.
2-1) The period from 250 A.D. to 900 A.D was called what? The Classic Period of Maya Civilization.
2-2) True or false: The Maya had pyramids. True.
2-3) True or false: The Maya believed in Judaism. False.
2-4) True or false: Tikal was a Mayan city. True.
2-5) True or false: The Maya had ball courts. True.
2-6) Which agriculture did experts assume the Maya practiced? Slash-and-burn agriculture.
2-7) Were the Maya monotheistic or polytheistic? The Maya believed in many gods.
2-8) What color was the god associated with the north? East? West? South? White; red; black; yellow.
2-9) What was the Popul Vuh? A book of the history from after the arrival of the Spanish that recounts the Highland Maya's story of creation.
2-10) Name two reasons the Maya may have vanished. Increased warfare that lead to disrupted trade or population growth and over-farming that lead to economic hardship.
3-1) Who was the Valley of Mexico home to? Several powerful cultures; the ancestors to future Aztecs.
3-2) What was the significance of Quetzalcoatl? Quetzalcoatl was a god for many ancient Mexican civilizations.
3-3) How many pyramids did the Aztecs make? For what purpose? Twenty; each was dedicated to a different god.
3-4) What was their most valuable trade item? Obsidian.
3-5) What does Teotihuacan mean? It means "City of the Gods."
3-6) What did the fierce war god that the Aztecs followed demand from his followers? He demanded blood and human sacrifice.
3-7) Who was the god of sun and warfare? Huitzilopochtli.
3-8) What were three of the Aztec classes? Nobles, commoners, and enslaved persons.
3-9) What was the Aztec calendar filled with? Religious festivals which varied according to the god being honored.
3-10) What year did Montezuma II become ruler? 1502.
4-1) Where did the Inca originally reside? A high plateau in the Andes.
4-2) Where did they eventually settle? When? The Valley of Cuzco in the 1200's.
4-3) What does Pachacuti's name mean? "World Transformer" or 'Earthshaker".
4-4) Define allyu. The extended family group that undertook tasks too big for one family.
4-5) What was the labor tribute known as? Mita.
4-6) Which women were drafted into religious services? Unmarried women.
4-7) What were they known as? Mamakuna or "virgins of the sun."
4-8) When was the glory of Incan civilization? The early 1500s'.
4-9) Who was the father of Atahualpa and Huascar? Huayna Capac was their father.
4-10) Who won the civil war? Atahualpa.
Created by: 20ecooke