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World War II

**"Good Neighbor" Policy** Renounced any nation's right to intervene in affairs of another - FDR removed troops from Haiti/Dominican Republic, terminated Platt Amendment
Cuba economic crisis 1933 Instead of sending marines, FDR sent indirect aid to revolt's Fulgencio Batista
Mexico's oil policy Nationalized oil companies owned by US and British corporations. No US intervention, compromised with Mexico
**Benito Mussolini Italy's dictator 1922-'43 - Invaded Ethiopia 1935, persecuted Jews in 1938
**Adolf Hitler** Germany's chancellor Jan 1933. Nazi Party gained support as result of depression. "Purified" nation of Jews
Rhineland, Austria, Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia), Czechoslovakia, Poland Taken over by Germany in 1935, 38
Neville Chamberlain British prime minister
Appeasement Policy stating that Germany had no more territorial ambitions in return for not another war
Manchuria Chinese province taken over by Japan in 1931 before calling full war and taking over major parts
Neutrality Acts 1935-1937 Outlawed arms sales/loans to nations in war
Louis Ludlow Amendment Proposed but failed amendment for no US declaration of war unless direct attack
1936 Olympics Held in Berlin, Jesse Owens (Black US runner) mocked Nazi myth of racial superiority
Joseph Stalin and German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact Hitler agreement with Soviet leader to not fight and would divide Poland after Germany invasion
Nuremberg Laws of 1935 Got rid of Jewish German citizenship, increased Jews' restrictions on education, social, economic life
St Louis Vessel with 900 Jew refugees wanted to dock in Florida, Immigration officials disagreed, sent back to Germany where 700 were killed
Danzig Polish city demanded back by Germans, but denied. Nazi troops went into Poland Sep 1939. British and French declared war on Germany
Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, and Britain Overwhelmed by Nazis (1940) after US began to sell weapons to belligerents
Winston Churchill** British New Prime Minister, wanted more US aid 1940 after Luftwaffe German attacks destroyed Coventry
Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis Forces fighting against Allies
Election of 1940 FDR w/ other Democrat Henry Wallace v Republican Wendell Willkie
Selective Service and Training Act First ever peacetime draft in US history
America First Committee Isolationism's national voice - financed by Ford, Lindbergh was most popular speaker (against war)
Lend-Lease Program** Supply war material to Britain
Atlantic Charter** Issued by Churchill and FDR: No international aggression, yes national self-determination, endorsed principles of free trade, disarmament, collective security
Reuben James Sunk by U-boat, killed 115 Americans. Pushed FDR to ask Congress for permission to use merchant ships into war zones (no more Neutrality Acts)
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Japan desiring this empire made of much of China, Southeast Asia, western Pacific
General Hideki Toji Expansionist who replaced Japanese prime minister. Wanted to attack US in 1941 because of halt on trade with Japan
Pearl Harbor on Oahu Dive-bombed and torpedoed by Japan on December 7, 1941. Opened up Japanese attacks on Philippines, Malaya, Hong Kong
US declaration of war against Japan December 8, 1941
German declaration of war against US December 11, 1941
War Powers Act Congress granted president unprecedented authority over all aspects of war
Joint Chiefs of Staff Army, Navy, Army Air Force
Office of Strategic Services (OSS) Conduct espionage required for strategic planning
The War Production Board (WPB) Gave materials, limited production, distributed contracts
War Manpower Commission (WMC) Watched mobilization of men/women in war, agriculture, and industry
National War Labor Board (NWLB) Figured our disputes between management and labor
**Office of Price Administration (OPA) Rationed extra products, placed price/rent to check inflation. President took over these to slow inflation at end of war
John L Lewis - United Mine Workers (UMW) led 1/2M coal-field workers out of pits - were striking (rare). States passed laws to limit union power
Smith Connally War Labor Disputes Act Empowered president to take over any facility where strikes interrupted war production
Wildcat strikes Strikes not authorized by union leaders, only lasted small time
War bonds Provided almost half of the money to finance the war
Revenue Act of 1942 Raised top-income tax 60% to 94%, imposed income taxes on middle/low class for first tiem
Wizard War Nickname Churchill have to the war (scientific/tech/medical developments)
Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) Developed new ordnance and military medicine.
Mark I and ENIAC Computing machines that increased the accuracy of artillery
Insecticides and DDT Killed malaria-carrying mosquitoes. Medical improvements help improved life overall
Manhattan Project Albert Einstein (Jewish refugee) warned Roosevelt of German atomic fission and bombs. Project used Urainium and Plutonium, Dropped a bomb in Alamogordo, New Mexico's desert.
Office of War Information (OWI) Employed more than 4k artists, writers, advertisers to explain war, counter enemy propaganda (pushed people to defeat enemy)
Operation TORCH American troops landed in North Africa, trapped Germans/Italians eastward while British pushed west. 260K German/Italian troops surrender
Wehrmacht Name for the German Army
Battle of Stalingrad 1942-1943 Russians defended Russia from Germans
**Operation OVERLORD - June 6, 1944 AKA DDay - 200K American/British w/ infantry stormed Normandy coast in largest invasion in history - led by Eisenhower.
**Battle of the Bulge - December 1944 Named after 80 mi x 50mi gap in American lines - last resort Germans were defeated
Battle of Midway June 1942 US broke Japanese naval code, knew plans. Carriers/planes beat Japanese, taking them to a defensive position
Battles of Philippine Sea and Leyte Gulf After island-hopping from Australia to philippines, navy annihilated rest of Japanese fleet - controlled Japan's air/shipping lanes
Election of 1944 Harry S Truman replaced liberal Henry A Wallace from VP ticket. FDR barely beat Thomas E Dewey (Republican)
**Rosie the Riveter Became the idealistic symbol of the woman war worker
Women's Army Corps (WACs) and Navy's Women Appointed for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES) Replaced men in noncombat jobs (mechanics/ radio/ mapmakers/ ferry pilots)
Office of Scientific Research and Development Sent $100B to Western universities
Pocket Book Company Introduced paperbacks in 1939, Armed Services Editions reprinted paperback reprints and distributed free to soldiers
NAACP Membership 10x to 1/2M in 1945, Pressed for no poll tax/ lynching/ discrimination/ disfranchisement
Smith v Allwright (1944) Texas all-white primary declared unconstitutional, other southern states affected but used other devices to minimize black votes
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) (1942) Sought to desegregate public places in north
**A Philip Randolph** Called for "thundering march" of 100K, threatening Washington if FDR did not end discrimination (Ex Order 8802)
Executive Order 8802 Prohibited discriminatory employment practices by agencies / unions & companies in war-related work, established Fair Employment Practices Commission
761st Tank Battalion / 99th Pursuit Squadron All black military groups that won distinction in fighting against Germany
Detroit 1943 City where black and white mobs and property was destroyed for over 30 hours
National Congress of Native Americans (1944) Created to end campaign for ending reservations / trust protections - discriminated in mainstream towns
**Braceros Temporary Mexican workers imported w/ an agreement with Mexico - encouraged illegal immigration desperate for employment
League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) Returning Mexican-American GI's joined these anti-discrimination groups to press for equal rights
Veteran's Benevolent Association (1945) First organization in US to fight against homosexual discrimination
Internment of Japanese Americans 40 years of anti-Japanese sentiment in West coast
Executive order 9066 Authorized removal of military areas of anyone seen as threat. Military ordered eviction of all native/foreign born Japanese-Americans from the West (except Hawaii)
Korematsu v US (1944) Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of evacuation of Japanese to camps in this case. Slowly after, gov began program to begin gradual release and give Japs rights
Personal Justice Denied Report apologizing to Japanese and blaming Roosevelt's administration for race prejudice of Japanese. 1988, Congress gave $20K to all surviving internees
Fred Korematsu Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1998 by Clinton for protesting evacuation of Japanese
The Yalta Conference (February 1945) and Yalta accords FDR, Churchill, and Stalin met in Soviet city. Stalin vowed to declare war on Japan 2-3 months after Germany's surrender. FDR and Churchill promised to give back territories it had lost in Ruso-Japanese War (1904)
United Nations Agreed to a founding conference in San Francisco 1945
April 30, May 2, May 8 1945 Hitler committed suicide / Berlin fell to Soviets / German gov surrendered unconditionally
V-E Day Victory in Europe in May 8, 1945 (Roosevelt died April 12)
Harry S Truman FRD successor, not familiarized with FRD policies. Attack Molotov (Russian ambassador) to cut off aid, Stalin ignored promises he made at Yalta
Potsdam Conference (July-August) Arranged postwar ideas begun at Yalta, barely agreed on how to punish Germany. Truman ordered use of atomic bomb if no Japanese surrender before August 3
Holocaust Pushed military to speed winning of war. 1944, US planes flew over Auschwitz and bombed factories, ignored gas chambers
War Refugee Board Managed to save 220K Jews and non-Jews, other 6M Jews, gypsies, communists, gays were killed
Okinawa / Iwo Jima Japaneses cities invaded by US troops, high casualty rate
Potsdam Declaration (July 26, 1945) Truman warned Japan to surrender unconditionally, Japan refused
Hiroshima / Nigasaki Enola Gay and Bock's Car flew uranium and plutonium bombs that killed around 150K people
Created by: uriel_magana