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HSCI 131

Chapter 10 Musculoskeletal System

appendage any body part attached to a main structure
articulation place of union between two or more bones; also called a joint
cancellous lattice-like arrangement of bony plates occurring at the ends of long bones
cruciate ligaments ligaments that cross each other, forming an X within the notch between the femoral condyles
hematopoiesis production and development of blood cells, normally in the bone marrow
adduction moves closer to the midline
abduction moves away from the midline
flexion decreases the angle of a joint
extension increases the angle of a joint
rotation moves a bone around its own axis
pronation turns the palm down
supination turns the palm up
inversion moves the sole of the foot inward
eversion moves the sole of the foot outward
dorsiflexion elevates the foot
plantar flexion lowers the foot (points the toes)
ankyl/o stiffness; bent, crooked
ankylosis abnormal condition of stiffness
arthr/o joint
kyph/o humpback
kyphosis abnormal condition of a humpback posture
lamin/o lamina (part of the vertebral arch)
laminectomy excision of the lamina
lord/o curve, swayback
lordosis abnormal condition of a swayback posture
myel/o bone marrow; spinal cord
myelocyte bone marrow cell
orth/o straight
orthopedist specialist in treatment of musculoskeletal disorders
oste/o bone
osteoma tumor composed of bone
ped/o or ped/i foot; child
pedograph instrument for recording the foot
scoli/o crooked; bent
scoliosis abnormal bending of the spine
thorac/o chest
thoracodynia pain in the chest
acromi/o acromion (projection of the scapula)
acromial pertaining to the acromion
brachi/o arm
brachialgia pain in the arm
calcane/o calcaneum (heel bone)
calcaneodynia pain in the heel
carp/o carpus (wrist bone)
carpoptosis downward displacement of the wrist
cephal/o head
cephalad toward the head
cervic/o neck; cervix uteri (neck of the uterus)
cervicodynia pain in the neck
clavicul/o clavicle (collar bone)
clavicular pertaining to the clavicle
cost/o ribs
costectomy excision of a rib
crani/o cranium (skull)
dactyl/o fingers; toes
dactylitis inflammation of fingers or toes
femor/o femur (thigh bone)
femoral pertaining to the femur
fibul/o fibula (smaller bone of the lower leg)
fibulocalcaneal pertaining to the fibula and calcaneous
humer/o humerus (upper arm bone)
ili/o ilium (lateral, flaring portion of the hip bone)
ischi/o ischium (lower portion of the hip bone)
lumb/o loins (lower back)
metacarp/o metacarpus (hand bones)
metatars/o metatarsus (foot bones)
patell/o patella (kneecap)
pelv/o pelvis
pelvimetry act of measuring the pelvis
phalang/o phalanges (bones of the fingers and toes)
pod/o foot
podiatry treatment of the feet
pub/o pelvis bone (anterior part of the pelvic bone)
pubococcygeal pertaining to the pubis and the coccyx
radi/o radiation, x-ray; radius (lower arm bone on the thumb side)
spondyl/o vertebrae (backbone)
spondylitis inflammation of the vertebrae
vertebr/o vertebrae (backbone)
stern/o sternum (backbone)
sternad toward the sternum
tibi/o tibia (larger bone of the lower leg)
leiomy/o smooth muscle (visceral)
leiomyoma tumor of smooth muscle
muscul/o or my/o muscle
myoma tumor of muscle (tissue)
rhabd/o rod-shaped (striated)
rhabdoid resembling a rod
rhabdomy/o rod-shaped striated muscle
rhabdomyoma tumor composed of striated muscular tissue
chondr/o cartilage
fasci/o band, fascia (fibrous membrane supporting and separating muscles)
fascioplasty surgical repair of a fascia
fibr/o fiber, fibrous tissue
fibroma tumor of fibrous tissue
synov/o synovial membrane, synovial fluid
ten/o, tend/o, or tendin/o tendon
tenodesis surgical binding or fixation of a tendon
tendoplasty surgical repair of a tendon
tendinitis inflammation of a tendon
-asthenia weakness, debility
myasthenia weakness of muscle (and abnormal fatigue)
-blast embryonic cell
myoblast embryonic cell that develops into muscle
-clasia to break; surgical fracture
osteoclasia surgical fracture of a bone
-clast to break; surgical fracture
osteoclast multinucleated cell that breaks down bone
-desis binding; fixation (of a bone or joint)
-malacia softening
arthrodesis binding together of a joint
chondromalacia softening of cartilage
-physis growth
epiphysis growth upon (the end of a long bone)
-porosis porous
-sarcoma malignant tumor of connective tissue
chondrosarcoma malignant tumor from cartilage cells
-scopy visual examination
arthroscopy visual examination of a joint
a- without, not
dys- bad; painful; difficult
atrophy without nourishment
dystrophy disorder caused by defective nutrition or metabolism
sub- under; below
subpatellar pertaining to below the patella
supra- above; excessive
supracostal pertaining to above the ribs
syn- union; together; joined
syndactylism condition of joined fingers or toes
ankylosis stiffening and immobility of a joint as a result of disease, trauma, surgery, or abnormal bone function
bunion deformity characterized by lateral deviation of the great toe as it turns in toward the second toe, which may cause surrounding tissues to become swollen and tender
carpal tunnel syndrome painful condition resulting from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel
claudication lameness, limping
contracture fibrosis of connective tissue in the skin, fascia, muscle or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint
crepitation dry, grating sounds or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction
exacerbation increase in severity of a disease or any of its symptoms (AKA flare)
ganglion cyst fluid-filled tumor that most commonly develops along the tendons or joint of the wrists or hands, but may also appear in the feet
hemarthrosis effusion of blood into a joint cavity
herniated disk rupture of a vertebral disk's center through its outer edge and back toward the spinal canal with pressure on the adjacent spinal nerve that results in pain, numbness or weakness in one or both legs
hypotonia loss of muscular tone or a diminished resistance to passive stretching
multiple myeloma malignant tumor of plasma cells (cells that help the body fight infection by producing antibodies) in the bone marrow
phantom limb perceived sensation, following amputation of a limb, that the limb still exists
rickets form of osteomalacia in children caused by vitamin D deficiency
sequestrum fragment of necrosed bone that has become separated from surrounding tissue
spondylolisthesis any slipping (subluxation) of vertebra from its normal position in relationship to the one beneath it
spondylosis degeneration of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae and relate tissues
sprain tearing of ligament tissue that may be slight, moderate or complete
strain muscular trauma caused by violent contraction or an excessive forcible stretch
subluxation partial or incomplete dislocation
talipes equinovarus congenital deformity of one or both feet in which the foot is pulled downward and laterally to the side (AKA CLUBFOOT)
electromyography use of electrical stimulation to diagnose the health of muscles and the nerve cells that control them (motor neurons)
reduction procedure that restores a bone to its normal position
closed reduction reduction in which fractured bones are realigned by manipulation rather than surgery
open reduction reduction in which fractured bones are placed in their proper position during surgery
bone immobilization procedures used to restrict movement, stabilize and protect a fracture and facilitate the healing process
casting bone immobilization bone immobilization by application of a solid, stiff dressing formed with plaster of Paris or similar material
splinting bone immobilization bone immobilization by application of an orthopedic device to the injured body part
traction bone immobilization bone immobilization by application of weights and pulleys to align or immobilize a fracture
amputation partial or complete removal of an extremity due to trauma or a circulatory disease
arthrocentesis puncture of a joint space using a needle to remove accumulated fluid
arthroclasia surgical breaking of an ankylosed joint to provide movement
arthroscopy visual examination of the interior of a joint and its structures using a thin, flexible fiberoptic scope called an arthroscope that contains a magnifying lens, fiberoptic light, and miniature camera that projects images on a monitor
bone grafting implantation or transplantation of bone tissue from another part of the body or from another person to serve as replacement for damaged or missing bone tissue
bursectomy excision of bursa
laminectomy excision of the posterior arch of a vertebra
prosthesis fitting replacement of a missing part of an artificial substitute, such as an artificial extremity
revision surgery surgery repeated to correct problems of a previously unsuccessful surgery or to replace a worn-out prothesis
bone revision surgery revision surgery to correct misalignment of bones, broken protheses, and bone fractures occurring around prostheses
sequestrectomy excision of a sequestrum (segment of necrosed bone)
synovectomy excision of a synovial membrane
total hip replacement surgical procedure to replace a hip joint damaged by a degenerative disease, commonly arthritis
arthrography series of radiographs taken after injection of contract material into a joint cavity (especially knee or shoulder) to outline the contour of the joint
bone density test noninvasive procedure that uses low-energy x-ray absorption to measure bone mineral density and usually measures bones of the spine, hip and forearm
discography radiological examination of the intervertebral disk structures with injection of a contrast medium
lumbosacral spinal radiography radiography of the five lumbar vertebrae and the fused sacral vertebrae, including anteroposterior, lateral and oblique views of the lower spine
myelography radiography of the spinal cord after injection of a contrast medium to identify and study spinal distortions caused by tumors, cysts, herniated intervertebral disks or other lesions
scintigraphy nuclear medicine procedure that visualizes various tissues and organs after administration of a radionuclide
bone scintigraphy scintigraphy in which the radionuclide is injected intravenously and taken up into the bone
fibers contractile cells that provide movement of an organ or body part
skeletal muscles voluntary/striated muscles. muscles whose action is under voluntary control (eyeballs, tongue, bones)
cardiac muscles found only in the heart. striated but involuntary contractions
smooth muscles involuntary/visceral muscles. found principally in visceral organs, walls of arteries and respiratory passages and urinary and reproductive ducts
fleshy attachments muscle fibers arise directly from bone
fibrous attachments connective tissue converges at the end of the muscle to become continuous and indistinguishable from the periosteum
aponeurosis what the attachment is called when the fibrous attachment spans a large ares of a bone
tendon when connective tissue fibers form a cord or strap
ligaments flexible bands of fibrous tissue that are highly adapted for resisting strains
short bones somewhat cube shaped, core of spongy bone enclosed in a thin surface layer of compact bone (ankles, wrists, toes)
irregular bones bones that cannot be classified as short or long because of complex shape (vertebrae, bones of the middle ear)
flat bones provide broad surfaces for muscular attachment or protection for internal organs (skull, shoulder blades, sternum)
long bones found in extremities (legs, arms, fingers)
parts of a long bone diaphysis (long main portion of bone), distal epiphysis and proximal epiphysis (two ends of bone)
articular cartilage cover the epiphyses, type of elastic connective tissue that provides a smooth surface for movement of joints
periosteum dense, white fibrous membrane covering the surface of the long bone
osteoblasts bone-forming cells
orthopedics branch of medicine concerned with prevention, diagnosis, care and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders
orthopedist the physician who specializes in the diagnoses and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders
rheumatologist physician who specializes in treating joint disease
Doctor of Osteopathy (DO) physician that maintains that good health requires proper alignment of bones, muscles, ligaments and nerves
fracture broken bone
closed (simple) fracture one in which the bone is broken but no external wounds exist
open (compound) fracture involves a broken bone and an external wound that leads to the site of fracture
complicated fracture one in which a broken bone has injured an internal organ (rib piercing a lung)
comminuted fracture the bone has broken or splintered into pieces
impacted fracture when the bone is broken and one end is wedged into the interior of another bone
incomplete fracture when the line of fracture does not completely transverse the entire bone
greenstick fracture when the broken bone does not extend through the entire thickness of the bone (one side of the bone is broken and the other side is bent)
colles fracture a break at the lower end of the radius (occurs just above the wrist) and causes displacement of the hand
hairline fracture minor fracture in which all portions of the bone are in perfect alignment
pathological (spontaneous) fractures usually caused by a disease process (neoplasms or osteoporosis)
osteomyelitis bone infection
osseous encompasses all bone
sequestrum bone death
sequestrectomy removal of bone death
Paget disease AKA osteitis deformans, chronic inflammation of bones, resulting in thickening and softening of bones
osteoporosis common metabolic bone disorder in the elderly, begins with decrease in bone mineral density, rate of bone resorption exceeds the rate of bone formation
osteopenia decrease in bone mineral density
kyphosis abnormal curvature of the upper portion of the spine, AKA humpback or hunchback, could be from arthritis, rickets, poor posture or respiratory disease
lordosis abnormal, inward curvature of a portion of the lower portion of the spine, AKA swayback, could be caused by increased weight in abdomen
arthritis general term for many joint diseases, inflammation of a joint
rheumatoid arthritis systemic disease characterized by inflammatory changes in joints and their related structures, resulting in crippling deformities
osteoarthritis AKA degenerative joint disease, most common form of arthritis, occurs when the protective cartilage at the end of the bones wear down
osteophyte bone spur, new bone growth
Heberden nodes bony enlargement caused by spur formation
crepitation crackling sound when there is movement in the joint
gout AKA gout arthritis, metabolic disease caused by the accumulation of uric acid crystals in the blood that become deposited in joints and soft tissues near joints causing pain and inflammation
nephroliths renal calculi formed because of uric acid crystals collecting in the kidneys (commonly caused from gout)
muscular dystrophy genetic disease, gradual weakening and atrophy of muscle tissue. loss of muscle function affects skeletal muscles and cardiac muscles, no cure for disease
Duchenne dystrophy most common type of muscular dystrophy, affects children (more commonly boys), sex-linked passed from mother, children usually die before age 30
myasthenia gravis neuromuscular disorder, causes fluctuating weakness of certain skeletal muscle groups (of eyes, face and sometimes limbs), caused by destruction of neurotransmitter receptors, muscles become weak and could cease to function
primary bone cancer malignancies that arise directly from bone or bone tissue
secondary bone cancer malignancies that arise in another region and spread (metastasize) to the bone
sarcomas malignancies that originate from bone, fat, muscle, cartilage, bone marrow and cells of the lymphatic system
fibrosarcoma develops in cartilage and generally affects the pelvis, upper legs and shoulders
osteosarcoma develops from bone tissue and generally affects the knees, upper arms and upper legs
ewing sarcoma develops from primitive nerve cells in bone marrow
Created by: arehberg
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