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Political Geography

Four Pillars of Statehood Government, sovereignty, population, territory
State Has boundaries which are recognized internationally
Nations Group of people who are joined together who share common history, culture, and religion.
Nation-states Ex. Japan Politically organized space where a nation and a state occupy the same space
Stateless nation An ethnic, religious, or linguistic group which are not the majority of the population in a nation state.
Centripetal forces An attitude that unifies a state and causes greater support.
Centrifugal forces A force that divides people and countries.
Colonialism Effort by one country to establish settlements and assimilate previously uninhabited or sparsely inhabited land Ex. Europe
Imperialism Control of territory already occupied by a native society Ex. Africa
Electoral geography The study among interactions among space, place, and region as well as the results of the election.
Devolution When power declines from a higher to lower level of vitality or essential quality.
Shatterbelt An area of instability between regions with differences in culture and political values
Irredentism Doctrine that irredenta should be controlled by the country in which they are ethically or historically related to.
Truman Proclamation United States claimed the resources of its continental shelf beyond the marginal seas
Territorial seas Countries have control of the resources within their waters for up to 24 nautical miles from its shoreline
Landlocked States State that is surrounded entirely by other states.
Supranationalism Group of three or more nations that work together to move towards a common goal. Ex. United Nations
Compact State Ex. Poland States normally smaller in size and contain one single culture
Fragmented State Ex. Indonesia The state is in pieces being physically separated and has great ethnic diversity
Elongated State Ex. Chile, Vietnam Very long state from the top to bottom, typically contain multiple cultures and has a higher chance of conflict
Protruded State Ex. Thailand Has a central mass of land and then a "tail" also part of the state
Perforated State Ex. Lesotho There is a hole in the state that contains another state.
Enclaves Pieces of territory that is surrounded by another political unit of which the territory is not a part of
Exclaves states bounded by a piece of territory that is part of the state but lies separated from it by territory of another state.
Organic Theory A state behaves like an organism to survive and must gain territory to gain political power.
Forward capitals Capital city generally positioned in contested territory usually near an international border.
Unitary state State that is governed by one powerful central government which does not relinquish power to sub-national entities. Ex. China, Russia, Communism
Heartland theory Idea that whoever rules Eastern Europe controls the core area of Eurasia and is vital to control of the world.
Rimland theory Domination of the coastal fringes or Eurasia would be important for world conquest.
Geopolitics The study of the effects of economic geography on the powers of the state
NAFTA North American Free Trade Association
Berlin Conference Meeting that regulated the trade and colonization of Africa. Caused the Great Scramble which increased imperealism in Africa.
Democratization the spread of democracy and the idea that people are sovereign. This increases the power of the middle class.
Exclusive Economic Zone Agreement that states have economic rights up to 200 nautical miles and can control the exploration of natural resources in the water, seabed, and the subsoil below
Created by: asigm9131