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MCAT Pysch/Social

Class 3: Personality, Motivation, and Psychological Disorders

TermDefinition
Personality It encompasses our thoughts, feelings, and ways of thinking about things, beliefs, and behaviors. It is a core component of who we consider ourselves to be.
6 Perspectives Use to Help Explain Personality Psychoanalytic, Humanist, Behaviorist, Social Cognitive, Trait, and Biological
Psychoanalytic Perspective Developed by Sigmund Freud; Asserts that personality is shaped largely by the unconscious. Mental illness or neurosis is the result of unconscious conflicts, many of which stem from childhood.
Libido Life Instinct; Drives behaviors focused on pleasure, survival, and avoidance of pain.
Death Instinct Drives dangerous of destructive behaviors and underlies the desire to hunt oneself or others.
ID Largely unconscious and responsible for our desire to avoid pain and seek pleasure.
EGO Responsible for our logical thinking and planning as we deal with reality.
SUPEREGO Responsible for our moral judgments of right and wrong and strives for perfection.
Freud's 5 Stages of Psychosocial Development Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, and Genital
Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development Trust vs. Mistrust, Autonomy vs. Shame, Initiative vs. Guilt, Industry vs. Inferiority, Identity vs. Role Confusion, Intimacy vs. Isolation, Generativity vs. Stagnation, Integrity vs. Despair
Humanist Perspective Asserts that humans are driven by an actualizing tendency to realize their own highest potential and personality conflicts arise when this is somehow thwarted.
Behaviorist Perspective A result of learned behavior patterns based on our environment.
B.F. Skinner Founding Father of Behaviorism
Social Cognitive Perspective A result of reciprocal interactions among behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors.
Motivation The driving force that causes us to act or behave in certain ways.
Factors that Influence Motivation Instincts, Drives, Needs, and Arousal
Instincts Behaviors that are unlearned and present in fixed patterns throughout a species.
Drives Urges originating from a physiological discomfort.
Needs Includes basic biological needs; also includes higher-level needs.
Arousal Even when a person's needs are met, restlessness, boredom, or curiosity may drive behavior.
Drive-Reduction Theory Suggests that physiological need creates an aroused state that drives the organism to address that need by engaging in some behavior that will reduce the arousal.
Abraham Maslow Sought to explain human behavior as motivated by a hierarchy of needs.
Psychological Disorders A set of behavioral and/or psychological symptoms that are not in keeping w/ cultural norms and that are severe enough to cause significant personal distress and/or significant impairment to social, occupational, or personal functioning.
Neuro-Developmental Disorders: Characteristics Manifests early in development (early onset); Before grade school; Appear as deficits
Neuro-Developmental Disorders: Specific Disorders Intellectual Disability; Communication Disorders; Autism-Spectrum Disorder; Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Psychotic Disorders: Characteristics Involve delusions, hallucinations, and/or disorganized speech; May involve "negative" symptoms
Psychotic Disorders: Specific Disorders Delusional Disorder; Brief Psychotic Disorder; Schizophreniform Disorder; Schizophrenia; Schizoaffective Disorder
Bipolar Disorders: Characteristics "Bridge" between Psychotic and Depressive Disorders; Involve episodes and oscillations (cycles)
Bipolar Disorders: Specific Disorders Bipolar I (Manic-Depressive); Bipolar II; Cyclothymic Disorder
Depressive Disorders: Characteristics Sad, Empty, and/or Irritable Mood; Not related to normal grief
Depressive Disorders: Specific Disorders Major Depressive Disorder; Persistent Depressive Disorder; Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
Anxiety Disorders: Characteristics Excessive fear or anxiety; Avoidance behaviors; Panic attacks
Anxiety Disorders: Specific Disorders Phobias, Social Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders: Characteristics Obsessions and/or Compulsions
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders: Specific Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior, Body Dysmorphic Disorder, Hoarding Disorder, Trichotillomania
Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders: Characteristics Exposure to traumatic or stressful event; Exhibit any of a wide range of symptoms
Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders: Specific Disorders Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; Acute Stress Disorder; Adjustments Disorders
Dissociative Disorders: Characteristics Disruptions and/or discontinuities; Abnormal integration of consciousness, identity, emotion, etc.
Dissociative Disorders: Specific Disorders Dissociative Identity Disorder; Dissociative Amnesia; Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder
Somatic Symptom Disorders: Characteristics Excessive and/or medically unexplainable symptoms; Commonly encountered in primary care
Somatic Symptom Disorders: Specific Disorders Somatic Symptom Disorder; Illness Anxiety Disorder; Conversion Disorder; Factitious Disorder
Feeding and Eating Disorders: Characteristics Disturbed eating behavior; Consumption and/or absorption of food may be affected.
Feeding and Eating Disorders: Specific Disorders Pica; Anorexia Nervosa; Bulimia Nervosa; Binge-Eating Disorder
Sleep-Wake Disorders: Characteristics Disturbance in quality, timing, and/or amount of sleep; May involve breathing patterns or nightmares
Sleep-Wake Disorders: Specific Disorders Insomnia Disorder; Hypersomnolence Disorder; Narcolepsy; Restless Leg Syndrome
Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders: Characteristics Problems in self-control of emotions; Behaviors violate the rights of others and/or cause legal trouble
Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders: Specific Disorders Oppositional Defiant Disorder; Intermittent Explosive Disorder; Conduct Disorder; Pyromania; Kleptomania
Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders: Characteristics Drugs separated into 10 classes; Involves brain's reward system; Tolerance and Withdrawal
Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders: Specific Disorders Substance Use Disorders; Alcohol Related Disorders; Caffeine, Cannabis, Halluciongenic, etc. - Related Disorders; Gambling Disorders
Neuro-cognitive Disorders: Characteristics Cognition is centrally affected; Deficits in cognitive function range from major to mild
Neuro-cognitive Disorders: Specific Disorders Delirium; Major or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder due to Alzheimer's Disease
Personality Disorders: Characteristics Enduring pattern of socially deviant feelings and behaviors; Pattern is inflexible across a range of settings and relationships; Begins in adolescence/young adulthood; Not diagnosed in children; Categorized into 3 "clusters"
Personality Disorders: Specific Disorders Cluster A, Cluster B, Cluster C
Cluster A (Odd/Eccentric) Personality Disorders Paranoid, Schizoid, and Schizotypal
Cluster B (Dramatic/Erratic) Personality Disorders Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, and Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Cluster C (Anxious/Fearful) Personality Disorders Avoidant, Dependent, and OCD Personality Disorders
Created by: bri92