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HSCI 131

Chapter 9 Blood, Lymph, and Immune Systems

TermDefinition
antibody (Ab) protective protein produced by B lymphocytes in response to the presence of a foreign substance called an antigen
antigen substance, recognized as harmful to the host, that stimulates formation of antibodies in an immunocompetent individual
bile pigment substance derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin and excreted by the liver
cytokine chemical substance produced by certain cells that initiates, inhibits, increases or decreases activity in other cells
immunocompetent ability to develop an immune response or recognize antigens and respond to them
natural killer cells NK cells, specialized lymphocytes that kill abnormal cells by releasing chemicals that destroy the cell membrane, causing its intercellular fluids to leak out
plasma liquid medium in blood where solid components (red & white blood cells and platelets) are suspended, 92% water and the rest plasma proteins (albumins, globulins, fibrinogens) gases, nutrients, salts, hormones and wate
erythrocytes red blood cells, transport oxygen and CO2, most numerous of circulating blood cells, remain in the bloodstream
leukocytes white blood cells, protect the body against invasion by pathogens and foreign substances, remove debris from injured tissue, aid in healing process, migrate through endothelial walls of capillaries and venules
thrombocytes platelets, smallest formed elements found in blood, initiate blood clotting when they encounter damaged vessel walls that have been injured or traumatized
blastic embryonic forms of all blood cell types
hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis development of blood cells to their mature form
erythropoiesis red cell development, RBCs decrease in size and extrude their nucleus
hemoglobin specialized iron containing compound that gives RBCs their red color, carries O2 to body tissues and exchanges it for carbon dioxide
hemosiderin iron compound that hemoglobin breaks down into, returns to bone marrow and is reused in a different form to make new blood cells
diapedesis process by which white blood cells migrate through endothelial walls of capillaries and venules and enter tissue spaces
granulocytes or agranulocytes classification of white blood cells depending on whether their cytoplasm contains or lack visible granules
eosin red acidic dye used in a granulocyte stain
alkaline dye basic dye for granulocyte stain that stains a dark purple color
neutrophils contain granules that stain pale lilac color. they dont show a marked affinity for acid dye (red) or an alkaline basic dye (dark purple) so they are called neutrophils. AKA polys because they have segmented nuclei. phagocytic cells. most numerous type
phagocytic cells responsible for ingesting and destroying bacteria and other foreign particles
eosinophils contain granules that stain red because of their affinity for the red acid due eosin. their main fxn is detoxification. numerous during allergic reactions and animal parasitic infestations
basophils contain granules that stain a dark purple because of their affinity for the alkaline basic dye. fxn is to release histamines and heparin at sites of injury
histamines initiate the inflammatory process by increasing blood flow
heparin anticoagulant that acts to prevent blood from clotting at the injury site
three types of granulocytes neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
agranulocytes arise in bone marrow from stem cells but mature in lymph tissue, nuclei do not form lobes, AKA mononuclear leukocytes
two types of mononuclear leukocytes (agranulocytes) monocytes and lymphocytes
monocytes mildly phagocytic when found within blood vessels, remain in vascular channels only a short time, when they exit they transform into macrophages
macrophages avid phagocytes capable of ingesting pathogens, dead cells, and other debris found at sites of inflammation
lymphocytes include B cells, T cells and NK cells. in acquired immunity, lymphocytes learn to recognize and destroy potential threats to the well being of the person
B cells and T cells provide acquired immunity: recognize and destroy potential theads
Natural killer cells NK cells: provide a generalized defense and respond whenever a potentially dangerous or abnormal cell is encountered. they kill by releasing potent chemicals that rupture cell membranes of abnormal cells. highly effective against cancer cells
hemostasis control of bleeding
thromboplastin a substance that initiates clot formation and is released by clotting factors in platelets and injured tissue
fibrinogen a soluble blood protein that becomes insoluble and forms fibrin strands that act as a net and entrap blood cells during the final step of coagulation
thrombus blood clot, jellylike mass of blood cells and fibrin
serum resulting fluid if fibrinogen and clotting elements are removed from plasma
blood types A, B, AB and O based on the presense or absence of specific antigens on the surface of RBC's
hematologists study blood
lymph fluid in the lymph system that suspends lymphocytes and monocytes
lymph vessels network of transporting vessels
functions of lymph system maintain fluid balance of the body by draining interstitial fluid from tissue spaces & returning it to the blood, transporting lipids away from the digestive organs for use by body tissues, filtering & removing unwanted or infectious products in lym nodes
interstitial fluid AKA tissue fluid, small amount of plasma that seeps out of blood capillaries and resembles plasma but with less protein, carries needed products to tissue cells while removing their wastes
lymph nodes where macrophages phagocytize bacteria and other harmful material while T cells and B cells exert their protective influence
right lymphatic duct lymph vessels from the right chest and arm join here, this duct drains into the right subclavian vein (major vessel in cardiovascular system)
thoracic duct lymph from all areas (other than right chest and arm) enter into this duct and drain into the left subclavian vein
spleen resembles a lymph node because it acts as a filter by removing cellular debris, bacteria, parasites and other infectious agents. Spleen also destroys old RBCs and serves as a repository for healthy blood cells
thymus in mediastinum, partially controls immune system by transforming certain lymphocytes into T cells to function in the immune system
tonsils masses of lymphatic tissue located in the pharynx that act as filters to protect the upper respiratory structures from invasion by pathogens
resistance body defenses that work together to protect against disease
innate body defenses (resistance) present at birth
acquired immunity develops after birth in immunocompetent people, adaptive immune system, B and T cells are active cells
B cells birth place and maturity place formed and mature in the bone marrow and then migrate to the lymph system
T cells birth place and maturity place formed in bone marrow but migrate to thymus to mature before migrating to lymph system. responsible for cellular immunity
humoral immunity component of specific immune system that protects primarily against extracellular antigens that have not yet entered a cell
plasma cells clone of cells produced by B cells that produce antibodies
antigen-antibody complex when an antibody encounters its matching antigen and attaches
cellular immunity component of specific immune system that protects primarily against intracellular antigens (viruses and cancer cells)
cytotoxic T cell cell that actually destroys the invading antigen, determines the antigens specific weakness and uses this weakness as a point of attack to destroy it
helper T cell essential to proper functioning of both humoral and cellular immunity, uses chemical messengers (cytokines) to activate, direct and regulate the activity of most of the immune system (especially B cells)
suppressor T cell monitors progression of infection, shuts down immune system response when infection resolves
memory T cells remain in lymph system after an encounter with an antigen to combat it if it ever reappears
aden/o gland
adenoid resembling a gland
agglutin/o clumping, gluing
agglutination process of clumping
bas/o base
blast/o embryonic cell
erythroblastosis abnormal increase of embryonic red cells
chrom/o color
hypochromic pertaining to a decrease in color
eosin/o dawn (rose-colored)
erythr/o red
granul/o granule
hem/o & hemat/o blood
immun/o immune, immunity
kary/o nucleus
nucle/o nucleus
leuk/o white
leukemia white blood condition
lymphaden/o lymph gland
lymphadenopathy disease of lymph nodes
lymph/o lymph
lymphangi/o lymph vessel
morph/o form, shape, structure
myel/o bone marrow, spinal cord
neutr/o neutral, neither
phag/o swallowing, eating
plas/o formation, growth
aplastic pertaining to a failure to form
poikil/o varied, irregular
reticul/o net, mesh
ser/o serum
serology study of serum
sider/o iron
sideropenia deficiency of iron
splen/o spleen
thromb/o blood clot
thym/o thymus gland
xen/o foreign, strange
-blast embyonic cell
-emia blood condition
anemia without blood
-globin protein
hemoglobin blood protein
-graft transplantation
-osis abnormal condition, increase
leukocytosis abnormal increase in white blood cells
-penia decrease, deficiency
-phil attraction for
-phoresis carrying, transmission
-phylaxis protection
anaphylaxis against protection
-poiesis formation, production
-stasis standing still
a- without, not
allo- other, differing from the normal
aniso- unequal, dissimilar
iso- same, equal
macro- large
micro- small
mono- one
poly- many, much
hematology branch of medicine that studies blood cells, blood clotting mechanisms bone marrow and lymph nodes
allergy and immunology branch of medicine involving disorders of the immune system, including asthma and anaphylaxis, adverse reactions to drugs, autoimmune diseases, organ transplantations and malignancies of the immune system
anemia deficiency of erythrocytes or hemoglobin in the blood
hemorrhagic anemia excessive blood loss
hemolytic anemia excessive blood-cell destruction
aplastic anemia decreased blood formation within bone marrow
hemolyze breaking apart of sickle cells
disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) abnormal activation of the protein involved in blood coagulation, causing small blood clots to form in vessels and cutting off the supply of oxygen to distal tissues
graft rejection process in which a recipients immune system attacks a transplanted organ or tissue
graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) complication that occurs following a stem cell or bone marrow transplant in which the transplant produces antibodies against recipients organs that can be severe enough to cause death
hematoma localized accumulation of blood, usually clotted, in an organ, space or tissue due to a break in or severing of a blood vessel
AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: infectious disease caused by HIV that slowly destroys the immune system
opportunistic infections infections that do not affect healthy individuals
lymphadenopathy swollen lymph glands, symptom of AIDS
Kaposi sarcoma neoplastic disorder, AIDS defining disease, malignancy of connective tissue (including bone, fat, muscle, fibrous tissue), tumors readily metastasize to other organs
Pneumocytosis pneumonia AIDS defining disease
allergy acquired abnormal immune response that requires initial exposure to an allergen
sensitization initial exposure
urticaria hives
indurated when a scratch gets red, swollen and hard in response to the presence of antibodies to the allergen
autoimmunity failure of the body to distinguish accurately between self and non self, immune systems attacks the antigens found on its own cells to such an extent that tissue injury results
multisystemic affecting many organs and tissues
myasthenia gravis chronic, progressive autoimmune neuromuscular disease that affects the voluntary muscles of the body, causing sporadic weakness. limbs, eyes and speech muscles most commonly affected
remissions period of latency of a disease
exacerbations period of flare up of a disease
edema abnormal accumulation of fluids in the intercellular spaces of the body, decrease in blood protein level a major cause of this
hypoproteinemia decrease in blood protein level, especially albumin (controls amount of plasma leaving the vascular channels
localized limited to a specific area
diuretics medications that promote urination
ascites fluid collects within the peritoneal or pleural cavity
hemophilia bleeders disease, hereditary disorder in which the blood-clotting mechanism is impaired
hemophilia A deficiency in clotting factor VIII
hemophilia B deficiency in clotting factor IX
hematomas areas of blood seepage
hemarthrosis blood entering joints
infectious mononucleosis one of the acute infections caused by the epstein-barr virus, usually found in young adults and tends to appear in early spring and fall, AKA kissing disease
anorexia loss of appetite
hepatomegaly enlargement of the liver
splenomegaly enlargement of the spleen
leukemia oncological disorder of the blood-forming organs, characterized by an over-growth of blood cells
proliferation over growth
myelogenous granulocytic
acute leukemia sudden onset of the disease and cells are highly embryonic with few mature forms, severe anemia, infections, and bleeding disorders appear early in the disease, life threatening
blastic highly embryonic
chronic leukemia signs and symptoms are slow to develop,
Hodgkin disease Hodgkin lymphoma, malignant disease of the lymph system, primarily the nodes. Usually begins with painless enlargement of lymph nodes, typically on one side of the neck, chest or underarm
pruritus intense itching
dysphagia difficulty swallowing
hemoglobinopathy any disorder caused by abnormalities in the hemoglobin molecule
lymphadenopathy any disease of the lymph nodes
lymphedema swelling, primarily in a single arm or leg, due to an accumulation of lymph within tissues caused by obstruction or disease in the lymph vessels
multiple myeloma malignant tumor of plasma cells (cells that help the body fight infections by producing antibodies) in the bone marrow
sepsis presence of bacteria or their toxins in the blood; also called blood poisoning
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) widespread autoimmune disease that may affect the skin, brain, kidneys, and points and causes chronic inflammation
thrombocythemia overproduction of platelets, leading to thrombosis or bleeding disorders due to platelet malformations
thrombocytopenia abnormal decrease in platelets caused by low production of platelets in the bone marrow or increased destruction of platelets in the blood vessels (intravascular), spleen (extravascular) or liver (extravascular)
von Willebrand disease bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of von Willebrand factor, a "sticky" protein that lines blood vessels and reacts with platelets to form a plug that leads to clot formation
immunotherapy any form of treatment that alters, enhances, stimulates or restores the body natural immune mechanisms to treat disease
allergy injections injection with increasing strengths of the offending antigen given over a period of months or years to increase tolerance to an antigen responsible for severe allergies
biological immunotherapy use of immune system stimulates to enhance the immune system response in the treatment of certain forms of cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and Crohn disease
bone marrow aspiration removal of a small sample of bone marrow using a thin aspirating needle (usually from the pelvis) for microscopic examination
bone marrow transplant infusion of healthy bone marrow stem cells after the diseased bone marrow is destroyed by chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy; used to treat leukemia, aplastic anemia and certain cancers
autologous bone marrow transplant infusion of the patients own bone marrow or stem cells after a course of chemo or radiation therapy
homologous bone marrow transplant infusion of bone marrow or stem cells from a compatible donor after a course of chemotherapy and or radiation
lymphadenectomy removal of lymph nodes, especially in surgical procedures undertaken to remove malignant tissue
sentinel node excision removal of the first node (sentinel node) that receives drainage from cancer-containing areas and the one likely to contain malignant cells
transfusion infusion of blood or blood products from one person (donor) to another person (recipient)
antinuclear antibody (ANA) test to identify antibodies that attack the nucleus of one individuals own body cells (auto-antibodies)
blood culture test to determine the presence of pathogens in the bloodstream
complete blood count (CBC) series of tests that includes hemoglobin, hematocrit, red and white blood cell counts, platelet count, and differential count
monospot nonspecific rapid serological test for the presence of the heterophiles antibody, which develops several days after infection by Epstein Barr virus, the organism that caused infectious mononucleosis
partial thromboplastin time (PTT) test that measures the length of time it takes blood to clot to screen for deficiencies of some clotting factors
prothrombin time test that measures the time it takes for prothrombin to form a clot
Shilling test test used to diagnose pernicious anemia by determining if the body properly absorbs vitamin B12 through the digestive tract
bone marrow MRI highly sensitive imaging procedure that detects lesions and changes in bone tissue and bone marrow, especially in multiple myeloma
lymphangiography visualization of lymphatic channels and lymph nodes using a contrast medium to determine blockages or other pathologies of the lymph system
lymphoscintigraphy introduction of a radioactive tracer into the lymph channels to determine lymph flow, identify obstructions, and locate the sentinel node
Created by: arehberg