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HSCI 131

Chapter 8 Cardiovascular System

autonomic nervous system portion of the nervous system that regulates involuntary actions, such as heart rate, digestion and peristalsis
leaflet flat, leaf-shaped structure that comprises the valves of the heart and prevents back flow of blood
lumen tubular space or channel within an organ structure of the body; space within an artery, vein, intestine, or tube
regurgitation back flow or ejecting of contents through an opening
sphincter circular muscle found in a tubular structure or hollow organ that constricts or dilates to regulate passage of substances through its opening
vasoconstriction narrowing of the lumen of a blood vessel that limits blood flow, usually as a result of diseases, medications, or physiological processes
vasodilation widening of the lumen of a blood vessel caused by the relaxing of the muscles of the vascular walls
viscosity state of being sticky or gummy
aneurysm/o widened blood vessel
aneurysmorrhaphy suture of an aneurysm
angi/o vessel
vascul/o vessel
angioplasty surgical repair of a vessel
aort/o aorta
arteri/o artery
arteriorrhexis rupture of an artery
arteriol/o arteriole
atri/o atrium
atriomegaly enlargement of the atrium
ather/o fatty plaque
cardi/o & coron/o heart
electr/o electricity
embol/o embolus (plug)
hemangi/o blood vessel
my/o muscle
myocardial pertaining to heart muscle
phleb/o vein
phlebectasis expansion of a vein
ven/o vein
venostasis standing still of blood in a vein
scler/o hardening
arteriosclerosis abnormal condition of hardening of the artery
sept/o septum
septostomy forming an opening in a septum
sphygm/o pulse
sphygmoid resembling a pulse
sten/o narrowing, stricture
thromb/o blood clot
thrombolysis destruction of a blood clot
valv/o & valvul/o valve
valvotomy incision of a valve
vas/o vessel
vasography process of recording an image of a vessel
ventricul/o ventricle (of the heart or brain)
-cardia heart condition
tachycardia rapid heartbeat
-gram record, writing
-graph instrument for recording
electrocardiograph instrument for recording electrical activity of the heart
-graphy process of recording
angiography process of recording an image of a vessel
-stenosis narrowing
brady- slow
endo- in, within
endovascular pertaining to the area within a vessel
extra- outside
extravascular pertaining to the area outside a vessel
peri- around
trans- across
transseptal across the septum
aneurysm localized abnormal dilation of a vessel, usually an artery
angina mild to severe suffocating pain that typically occurs in the chest and is caused by an inadequate blood flow to the myocardium
arrhythmia irregularity in the rate of rhythm of the heart
bradycardia arrhythmia in which the heart beats abnormally slowly, usually fewer than 60 beats per minute in a resting adult
fibrillation arrhythmia in which there is an abnormally rapid, uncoordinated quivering of the myocardium that can affect the atria or the ventricles
heart block arrhythmia in which there is interference with the normal transmission of electric impulses from the SA node to the Purkinje fibers
tachycardia arrhythmia in which there is a fast but regular rhythm, with the heart possibly beating up to 200 beats per minute
arteriosclerosis hardening and narrowing of an artery along with the loss of its elasticity
atherosclerosis form of arteriosclerosis characterized by the deposit of plaques containing cholesterol and lipids that narrows the lumen of the arteries
carotid artery disease narrowing of the carotid arteries, usually caused by atherosclerosis; may eventually lead to thrombus formation and stroke
bruit soft blowing sound heard on auscultation, associated valvular action or with the movement of blood as it passes an obstruction or both
cardiomyopathy disease or weakening of heart muscle that diminishes cardiac function
coarctation narrowing of a vessel, especially the aorta
embolism condition in which a mass (commonly a blood clot) becomes lodged in a blood vessel, obstructing blood flow
hyperlipidemia excessive amounts of lipids (cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides) in the blood
hypertension elevated blood pressure persistently higher than 140/90 mm Hg
hypotension low blood pressure persistently lower than 90/60 mm Hg
infarction localized tissue necrosis due to the cessation of blood supply
ischemia local, temporary deficiency of blood supply to an organ or tissue due to circulatory obstruction
mitral valve prolapse structural defect in which the mitral (bicuspid) valve leaflets prolapse into the left atrium during ventricular contraction (systole), resulting in incomplete closure and back flow of blood
palpitation sensation of an irregular heartbeat, commonly described as pounding, racing, skipping a beat, or flutter
phlebitis inflammation of a deep or superficial vein of the arms or legs (more commonly the legs)
syncope partial or complete loss of consciousness that is usually caused by a decreased supply of blood to the brain (AKA fainting)
thrombosis abnormal condition in which a blood clot develops in a vessel and obstructs it at the site of its formation
deep vein thrombosis (DVT) blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the body, especially those in the legs or thighs
defibrillation electrical shock delivered randomly during the cardiac cycle to treat emergency life-threatening arrhythmias
cardioversion defibrillation technique using low energy shocks to treat an arrhythmia and is usually synchronized with the large R waves of the ECG complex to restore normal heart rhythm
sclerotherapy injection of a chemical irritant (sclerosing agent) into a vein to produce inflammation and fibrosis that destroys the lumen of the vein
thrombolysis destruction of a blood clot using anticlotting agents called clot-busters such as tissue plasminogen activator
angioplasty any endovascular procedure that reopens narrowed blood vessels and restores forward blood flow
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) angioplasty of the coronary arteries in which a balloon catheter is inserted through the skin into the right femoral artery and threaten to the site of the stenosis to enlarge the lumen of the artery and restore forward blood flow
biopsy removal of a small piece of tissue for diagnostic purposes
arterial biopsy removal of a segment of an arterial vessel wall to confirm inflammation of the wall or arteritis
catheter ablation treatment for cardiac arrhythmias; usually performed under fluoroscopic guidance
commissurotomy surgical separation of the leaflets of the mitral valve, which have fused together at their points of contact (commissures)
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) placement of a vessel graft from another part of the body to bypass the blocked part of a coronary artery and restore blood supply to the heart muscle
embolectomy removal of an embolus
endarterectomy removal of fatty plaque from the interior of an occluded vessel using a specially designed catheter fitted with a cutting or grinding device
automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator AICD insertion implantation of a battery-powered device that monitors and automatically corrects ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation by sending electrical impulses to the heart in patients who are at risk of sudden cardiac death
laser ablation procedure used to remove or treat varicose veins
open heart surgery surgical procedure performed on or within the exposed heart, usually with the assistance of a heart-lung machine
stent placement placement of a mesh tube inserted into a natural passage or conducts in the body to prevent or counteract a disease-induced, localized flow constriction
valvotomy incision of a valve to increase the size of the opening; used in treating mitral stenosis
cardiac catheterization passage of a catheter into the heart through a vein or artery to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the heart
electrophysiology study procedure used to determine the cause of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias by mapping the hearts conduction system in a patient with an arrhythmia
electrocardiography procedure that graphically records the spread of electrical excitation to different parts of the heart using small metal electrodes applied to the chest, arms and legs
Holter monitor test ECG taken with a small, portable recording system capable of storing up to 48 hours of ECG tracings
stress test ECG taken under controlled exercise stress conditions (bicycle or treadmill)
cardiac enzyme studies blood test that measures the presence and amount of cardiac enzymes in the blood, including troponin T, troponin I, and creatine kinase
lipid panel series of blood tests used to assess risk factors of ischemic heart disease
angiography radiographic image (angiogram) of the inside of a blood vessel after injection of a contract medium
aortography angiography of the aorta and its branches after injection of a contrast medium
coronary angiography angiography that is used to determine the degree of stenosis or obstruction of the arteries that supply blood to the heart
cardiac MRI specialized MRI that provides information on both static and moving images of the heart, including blood flow and velocity
magnetic resonance angiography type of MRI scan that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to provide detailed images of blood vessels
multiple-gated acquisition (MUGA) scan nuclear procedure that uses radioactive tracers to detect how well the heart walls move as they contract and calculates the ejection fraction rate (amount of blood the ventricle can pump out in one contraction)
single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) MUGA scan of the heart in which the gramma camera moves in a circle around the patient to create individual images as "slices" of the heart (tomography)
nuclear perfusion study test used in conjunction with a stress test to detect the presence of coronary artery disease that is causing partial obstruction of the coronary arteries
ultrasonography high frequency sound waves are directed at soft tissue and reflected as echoes to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure
doppler ultrasonography ultrasound to assess blood flow through blood vessels and the heart
echocardiography ultrasonography that is used to visualize internal cardiac structures, produce images of the heart, and assess cardiac output
venography radiography of a vein after injection of a contrast medium to detect incomplete filling of a vein, indicating an obstruction
arteries network of blood vessels. carry blood from the heart to all cells of the body. walls are strong and flexible
capillaries microscopic vessels that join the arterial system with the venous system, most important of the three vessel types, capillaries have thin walls that enable the exchange of water, respiratory gases, macromolecules, metabolites, & waste bw the blood & cells
venules capillaries merge to form these larger blood vessels
veins combined venules that return blood to the heart from skeletal muscle contraction, gravity, respiratory activity and valves
tunica externa outer coat of the arteries walls, composed of connective tissue that provides strength and flexibility
tunica media middle layer of the arteries walls, composed of smooth muscle, can alter the size of the lumen, causes vasoconstriction when it contracts causing decreased blood flow, when it relaxes it causes vasodilation resulting in increased blood flow
tunica intima thin inner lining of the lumen of the vessel, composed of endothelial cells that provide a smooth surface on the inside of the vessel
pulse surge of blood felt in the arteries when blood is pumped from the heart
arterioles small arteries
valves small structures within veins that prevent backflow of bloood
heart muscular pump that propels blood to the entire body through a closed vascular network.
pericardium sac composed of three tissue layers where the heart is found
endocardium serous membrane that lines the four chambers of the heart and its valves and is continuous with the endothelium of the arteries and veins
myocardium the muscular layer of the heart
epicardium outermost layer of the heart
4 chambers of the heart R and L atrium, R and L ventricle
right atrium and left atrium upper chambers of the heart that collect blood
right ventricle and left ventricle lower chambers of the heart that pump blood from the heart. RV pumps to the lungs (pulmonary circulation) for oxygenation, and the LV pumps oxygenated blood to the entire body (systemic circulation)
superior vena cava collects and carries blood from the upper body, where blood from the body returns to the right atrium
inferior vena cava collects and carries blood from the lower body, where blood from the body returns to the right atrium
tricuspid valve blood goes from the RA through this valve, which consists of 3 leaflets, to the right ventricle. this valve closes during contraction of the ventricle to prevent backflow of blood to the right atrium
L and R pulmonary arteries blood leaves the right ventricle by way of these arteries when the heart contracts and then travels to the lungs
pulmonic valve (pulmonary semilunar valve) prevents regurgitation of blood into the right ventricle from the pulmonary artery
L and R pulmonary veins pulmonary capillaries unite to form these 4 veins that carry oxygenated blood back to the heart to deposit blood in the left atrium then through the mitral valve to the left ventricle
mitral (bicuspid) valve blood passes from the left atrium, through this valve, to get to the left ventricle. consists of 2 leaflets
aorta largest artery of the body, where oxygenated blood leaves the heart upon contraction of the ventricles
aortic semilunar valve (aortic valve) permits blood to flow in only one direction from the left ventricle to the aorta
right coronary artery the artery vascularizing the right side of the heart
left coronary artery the artery vascularizing the left side of the heart, has 2 branches: left anterior descending artery and circumflex artery
conduction tissue specialized cardiac tissue that initiates and spreads contraction impulses with 4 masses of specialized cells (SA node, AV node, AV bundle, Purkinje fibers)
sinoatrial node SA node, located in upper portion of right atrium, has intrinsic rhythm that initiations and propagates each heartbeat, setting the pace for the cardiac rate, PACEMAKER OF THE HEART
atrioventricular node AV node, impulses from the SA node travel here and cause the atria to contract, located at the base of the right atrium
bundle of His AV bundle, tract of conduction fibers, has a right and left branch, relays impulses to the Purkinje fibers
Purkinje fibers fibers that extend up the ventricle walls, transmit impulse to the right and left ventricles causing them to contract
sequence of the four structures responsible for conduction of a contraction impulse SA node > AV node > bundle of His > Purkinje fibers
P wave on electrocardiograph depolarization (contraction) of the atria
QRS complex on an electrocardiograph depolarization (contraction) of the ventricles
T wave on an electrocardiograph appears a short time later and shows the repolarization (recovery) of the ventricles
blood pressure BP, force exerted by blood against the arterial walls during two phases of a heartbeat
systole contraction phase of a heartbeat when the blood is forced out of the heart, produces the maximum force
diastole relaxation phase of a heartbeat when the ventricles are filling with blood, produces the weakest force
sphygmomanometer measures blood pressure
syncope loss of consciousness
cardiology medical specialty concerned with disorders of the cardiovascular system
cardiologist physician who treats disorders of the cardiovascular system
infarct localized tissue death when arterial emboli completely block circulation
ischemia localized tissue anemia when there is a partial blocking of circulation
endarterectomy removing occluding material and plaque from the innermost layer of the artery
coronary artery disease CAD: any disease that interferes with the ability of the coronary arteries to supply blood to the myocardium
angina chest pain
diaphoresis profuse sweating
pallor paleness
endocarditis inflammation of the inner lining of the heart and its valves
bacteremia bacteria traveling in the bloodstream
vegetations bacteremia lodging in the weakened heart tissue that form small masses
stenosis narrowing
insufficiency not closing properly
prophylactic treatment antibiotic treatment to protect against infection before invasive procedures
varicose veins enlarged, engorged, twisted, superficial veins that develop when the valves of the veins do not function properly and fail to prevent the backflow of blood
varices varicose veins in the esophagus
hemorrhoid varicose veins in the rectum
telangiectases spider veins which look like short, fine lines, starburst clusters or weblike mazes
phlebitis vain inflammation
myxoma tumor of the heart composed of mucous connective tissue
pulmonary edema fluid in the lungs
arthralgia joint pain
Created by: arehberg