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GEHS World Hist/Geo

GEHS World History/Geography Review

Planned Economy/Command Economy an economy in which government directs the use of national resources and regulates the economy to achieve both goals and stability. (USSR and China)
Adam Smith Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade. (1723-1790)Advocate of laissez-faire economics in The Wealth of Nations which stated a lack of governmental interference in the running of the economy.
Laissez Faire Advocated by Adam Smith,the belief that government should not interfere in the economic affairs of the nation
Market Economy an economy in which prices are determined by the buying and selling decisions of individuals in the marketplace. Supply and demand dictate the economy. (U.S. and Japan)
Mixed Economy An economic system that combines elements of free Market and Command economies. (United Kingdom, France)
Factors of Production The use of land, labor, capital & entrepreneurship to make a good or service
Spinning Jenny A machine that could spin several threads at once revolutionizing the textile industry and helping to bring about the Industrial Revolution.
Industrial Revolution the greatly increased output of machine-made goods that began in England in the middle 1700's
Beijing The current capital of China. Located in northeastern China.
English Channel Body of water that separates France and England
India Located in Southern Asia, "The subcontinent" of Asia. Former major colony of Great Britain.
Iraq a republic in the Middle East in western Asia
Moscow The capital of Russia
Sahara Desert the largest desert in the world, covering most of northern Africa
South Africa a republic at the southernmost part of Africa
Venezuela a country in northern South America on the Caribbean Sea
Regions Geographical areas that have common characteristics such as the Midwest or the Pacific Northwest in the United States.
Hindu A polytheistic (belief in many gods) religion found mainly in India (In conflict with Muslims in some places- for example: Pakistan)
World Court a court established to settle disputes between members of the United Nations
World Trade Organization An international body which organizes negotiations regarding trade rules and provides help to developing countries
Over-fishing The catching of fish at a faster rate than they can reproduce
Flood plain a low plain adjacent to a river that is formed chiefly of river sediment and is subject to flooding
Toxic Waste waste materials from industries that are poisonous to humans and the surrounding environment
Terracing Cutting wide, flat planting areas into the sides of steep hills or mountains to prevent soil erosion and water run-off.
Irrigation Process of moving and supplying water to the land for growing crops.
Sustainable Agriculture Farming method that preserves long-term productivity of land and ensures soil nutrient preservation.
Secular a viewpoint relating to worldly life, instead of religious matters that arose during the Renaissance.
Machiavelli A political writer of Florence, Italy who (1469-1527)through his work, The Prince advocated the need for a strong ruler and discussed the importance of acquiring political power by any means.
Shakespeare English poet and dramatist considered the greatest English writer. (1564-1616)Works include, Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, and MacBeth.
Humanism A philosophy that developed during the Renaissance that focuses on the nature, ideals, and achievements of the individual. Signalled a shift away from a focus on the divine/religious.
Michelangelo painter, sculptor, and architect; painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. Architect of St. Peter's Dome. Also sculpted the statue of David.
DaVinci A Renaissance sculptor, painter, achitect, inventor, and mathmatician. Painted the Mona Lisa.
Dome of Saint Peter's Michaelangelo's last work, the most impressive building of the Renaissance Age.
Tokugawa Shogunate Japanese dynasty from 1603-1853; noted for its isolation and unwillingness to trade.
Ming Naval Expeditions Chinese naval explorations in the 1400s. Ended about the time of European Exploration due to expenses.
Thomas Hobbes believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only a powerful governemnt (absolutism) could keep an orderly society
John Locke an English philosopher who believed the government had a duty to protect certain natural rights and should only stay in power if they do so (from Enlightenment)
Voltaire French philosopher and writer whose works epitomize the Age of Enlightenment, often attacking injustice and religious intolerance
Mary Wollstonecraft English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women during the Enlightenment period.
Jean Jaques Rousseau believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property. Advocated for society to be governed by the general will of the people.
Enlightened Despotism Absolute rulers during the Englightenment period who attempted to utilize enlighted ideals such as religious toleration, freedom of speech, and emphasis on education. However, their attempts failed.
Salons informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, and philosophes exchanged ideas during the Enlightenment
Nationalism a feeling of pride, loyalty, and protectiveness toward one's country
Militarism A policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army always ready for war.
German Unification Bismark used industrialization and militarism to unite the various German states.
Meiji Restoration The period of Japan in which the agrarian (farming) society was replaced by militarism and industrialization
Haitian Revolution A slave rebellion led by Toussaint L'Ouverture in an attempt to rid Haiti of French control.
Taiping Rebellion 1854-1868 peasants led 14 year-long rebellion in China; demanded equality, no private propery, dividing of harvest (they lost)
Boxer Rebellion A 1900 uprising in China aimed at ending British influence in China.
Sepoy Rebellion rebellion fought by Sepoys (local natives of India) against British rule in India in the mid 1800's
Zulu Wars Fought in 1879 between the British Empire and the Zulu Empire in Africa. The war ended the Zulu nation's independence.
German Fascism a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism, racism and no tolerance of opposition
Communism a system of government in which there is total political, economic, and cultural control over people's lives
Secret Police Military force used to enforce fascist and communist ideals
Class struggle conflict between social or economic classes (especially between the capitalist and proletariat classes)
Israel The country created as a homeland for Jews. The land was partitioned from Palestine in 1948 by the United Nations.
Arab Nationalism A movement for one large Arab Nation that did not work. Movement was backed by Nasser following World War II.
Suez Canal crisis Military attack on Egypt by Britain, France, and Israel in 1956 after Egypt seized the Suez Canal from British administration.
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries: set prices and production levels of crude oil
Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) Mary Wollstonecraft's most notable book in which she argues that women are not naturally inferior to men, but appear to be only because they lack education.
Gamal Abdel Nasser One of the most important political figures in both Arab Nationalism and politics during the 20th century.
Montesquieu A French social commentator and political thinker who lived during the Enlightenment. He is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers in government.
Creation of Israel (1948) Israeli independence after WWII has been marked by conflict with Palestine, and by wars with neighbouring Arab states.
Created by: webera