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MCAT Pysch/Social

Class 2: How Society Impacts Us

TermDefinition
Personal Identity Consists of all of the personal attributes that you consider integral to the description of who you are
Social Identity Consists of all of the socially defined attributes defining who you are including age, race, gender, religion, occupation, etc.
Self-Concept Also known as your self-identity, self-construction, or self-perspective. Includes all of your beliefs about who you are as an individual
Self-Schema The beliefs and ideas we have about ourselves; used to guide and organize the processing of information that is relevant to ourselves
Self-Efficacy Our belief in our abilities, competence, and effectiveness
High Self-Efficacy We believe we can affect a situation or outcome
Low Self-Efficacy We do not believe that we can affect a situation or outcome
Locus of Control Our belief in whether or not we can influence the events that impact us
Internal Locus of Control We believe that we have control over these events
External Locus of Control We do not believe that we have control
Attribution Theory How we understand our own behavior and the behavior of others
Internal Causes Dispositional Attribution
External Causes Situational Attribution
3 Factors Attributed to Internal or External Causes Distinctiveness, Consensus, and Consistency
Distinctiveness The extent to which the individual behaves in the same way in similar situations
Consensus The extent to which the individual is behaving similarly to other individuals
Consistency The extent to which the individual's behavior is similar every time this situation occurs
Social Facilitation Effect This occurs when the presence of others improves our performance; tends to only occur with simple, well-ingrained tasks
Deindividuation In situations where there is a high degree of arousal and low degree of personal responsibility, we may lose our sense of restraint and individual identity in exchange for identifying with a mob identity
Bystander Effect Predicts that we are less likely to help a victim when other people are present (we assume that someone else will help, so no one does anything). Everyone feels a diffusion of responsibility
Social Loafing Predicts that when people are working in a group, each person in the group has a tendency to exert less individual effort than if they were working independently
Groupthink This occurs within a group of people when the desire for harmony or conformity results in members attempting to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative view points
Group Polarization This occurs when groups tend to intensify the preexisting views of their members- that is, the average view of a member of the group is accentuated
Conformity This occurs when you adjust your behavior or thinking based on the behavior or thinking of others
Obedience This occurs when you yield to explicit instructions or orders from an authority figure
Deviance A violation of society's standards or conduct or expectations
Social Stigma The extreme disapproval of a person or group on socially characteristic grounds that distinguish them from other members of a society
Impression Management Also known as self-presentation, this is the conscious or unconscious process whereby we attempt to manage our own image by influencing the perceptions of others
Dramaturgical Perspective Stems from the theory of symbolic interactionism and posits that we imaging ourselves playing certain roles when interacting with others
Persuasion A powerful way to influence what other think and do
3 Key Elements to Persuasion Message Characteristics, Source Characteristics, and Target Characteristics
2 Cognitive Routes of Persuasion Central Route and Peripheral Route
Central Route of Persuasion People are persuaded by the content of the argument itself
Peripheral Route of Persuasion People focus on superficial or secondary characteristics of the speech or the orator
Secure Attachment Toddlers happily explore their surrounding while mother is present, cry when she leaves, but are quickly consoled upon her return
Insecure Attachment Toddlers demonstrate ambivalent, avoidant, or disorganized behaviors
Types of Insecure Attachment Ambivalent, Avoidant, or Disorganized
Ambivalent Attachment When the mother leaves they cry loudly, remain upset even after her return, can be inconsolable, may cling to the mother, and simultaneously hit her or push her away
Avoidant Attachment When the mother leaves, and when she returns, they may demonstrate seeming indifference. There is behavioral signs of indifference while physiological data show that the toddler is in fact experiencing stress
Disorganized Attachment Those toddlers may fluctuate between ambivalent and avoidant attachment styles
Created by: bri92