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normal flora

bacteria that have an established niche at a body site or sites. occupy sites for extended periods or indefinitely residents
are usually excluded from the host by competition from the residents. establish themselves briefly in the host when they are acquired transients
these potentially pathogenic organisms can be resident or transients carrier state
significance of normal flora:protects against these invading pathogens. if normal flora is occupying host "space" there is less room for pathogens to take up residence
significance of normal flora:thought to influence human anatomy and physiology influence priming of immune system, production of vitamins,lifespan
role of probiotics restore balance of normal flora. imbalance leads to disease states.
axilla,perineum and toe webs highest concentration of normal flora cuz there is more moisture here.
hands, face, trunk lower concentration of normal flora. lowest concentration is on arms/legs.
gram ? are the predominant type of normal flora because skin is relatively dry and gram ? is more susceptible to drying out (gram +). gram neg is prone to dessication because of their outer membrane
these gram + are predominant normal flora of skin (4 genuses) Staph(Epidermidis/Aureus);Micrococcus; Propionibacterium; Clostridium
true or false : aerobes predominate in the respiratory tract false: there are 10-100 times more anaerobes in mouth, nasopharynx, oropharynx
Steptococcus, Haemophilis, Neisseria species are common aerobic bacteria of mouth, oropharynx,nasopharnyx
Streptococcus mutans oral flora involved in the development of biofilms(plaque)
3 species involved in periodontal disease: Veillonella,Fusobacterium,Actinomyces
HACEK group bacteria gram-negative normal flora are associated with what disease state: subacute endocarditis
substance which inhibits bacterial growth in the eyes lysozyme in tears. there are a few important residents though: Staph epidermidis, Haemophilus, Corynebacterium, Moraxella
property of normal flora of stomach must survive at low pH. Helicobacter,Lactobacillus and Strep are known to colonize
Most bacteria located in this part of GI tract are anaerobes small intestine
what is blind loop syndrome? an obstruction of the GI tract where passage of baceria is prevented thus they proliferate and colonize the obstructed region
This body organ has the largest number of normal flora colon. Include Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Enterococcus
this member of Enterobacteriaceae is particularly prevalent in large intestine E.coli
a method of altering normal gut flora the use of antibiotics: leads to overgrowth of bacteria normally present at low numbers
altering normal gut flora: relationship to pseudomembranous colitis caused by overgrowth of Clostridium dificile after use of certain antibiotics. note: Staph aureus can also cause pseudomem colitis
the only anatomic areas permanently colonized with bacteria anterior urethra and vagina.
Lactobacillus begins to colonize the vaginal epithelium of baby girls during first? weeks six
3 factors influencing flora of vagina age, hormonal levels (especially estrogens),and pH
when does Lactobacillus decrease in the vaginal epithelium? after menopause
Following metabolism of estrogens, these 3 species predominate in the vagina: Staph, Strep, Enterobacteriaceae
after menarche, vagina is dominated by Lactobacillus and a variety of gram ??? gram negative/positive anaerobes and facultative anaerobes
fecal bacteria such as members of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus present in anterior urethra will cause: UTI's (urinary tract infections) E. coli is a common culprit.
method of urine culture requires a "clean catch" specimen. lots! of bacteria are initially in the urethra, must catch urine midstream
3 main categories of vaginitis yeast, bacterial (BV), Trichomonas vaginalis
Lactobacillus are thought to mainatain an acid pH in vagina by the metabolism of: glucose. in patients with BV, Lactobacillus are replaced with G.vaginalis and other anaerobic flora
increased prevalence and concentration in patients with BV, but is not a sole etiologic agent. Gardnerella vaginalis (gram +)
This bacteria is more prevalent in women in women with BV and does not gram stain Mycoplasma hominis
gram + ;obligate anaerobe; bacterial vaginosis Mobiluncus
gram - ;obligate anaerobe; bacterial vaginosis Fusobacterium
hydrogen peroxide(produced by some Lactobacillus strains) and production of lactic acid inhibit growth of these kind of BV organisms: anaerobes. most anaerobes lack catalase(cannot eliminate toxic H202)
pathogenesis in BV: these bacterial products may play a role in BV endotoxin,collagenases,proteases, malic acid production (Mobiluncus spp.)
pathogegesis in BV: transmission route sexual transmission
-vaginal fluid with a pH greater than 4.5; fishy odor on addition of 10% potassium hydroxide to discharge ;"clue cells" on a saline wet mount clinical diagnosis of BV--Tx: metronidazole
-pelvic inflammatory disease-pre-term birth-postpartum endometriosis complications of BV
Created by: nsubact