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US History Ch 11-16

WWII to Civil Rights

fascism a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and often racism and no tolerance of opposition
exploit to take unfair advantage of another
collectives farms in communist countries formed by combining small individual holdings into a single unit for operation under government supervision
Joseph Stalin Soviet Union dictator who came to power after Lenin's death and began a massive effort to industrialize his country
Benito Mussolini Italian dictator who used fascism to seize power and aligned with Hitler during WWII
5-year plans massive economic efforts of Stalin to increase agriculture and industrial output to catch up to the West. The cost was millions of death by famine and political persecution
appeasement the British & French policy of giving in to Nazi demands in order to buy time to build up the military and avoid all-out war
The Nye Committee Senate investigations that reported US arms manufacturers had lobbied for US entry into the war and reaped huge profits on arms sales; this turned Americans toward isolationism
Neutrality Act of 1935 made the sale of arms to countries at war illegal
internationalism the national policy of actively trading with foreign countries to foster peace and prosperity
Cash-and-Carry the Neutrality Act of 1939 that permitted the sale of weapons to Britain as long as they were transported on British ships
Lend-Lease Act 1940 act that allowed the US to lend or lease arms and equipment to Britain, which was considered "vital to the security of the US"
Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 Japanese attack on US naval forces in Hawaii that FDR called "a day that will live in infamey", and caused the US to enter WWII
Holocaust the systematic roundup and execution of Jews, gypsies, and minority groups by Nazi Germany in the territories captured during WWII as part of Hitler's "final solution"
disenfranchised minority groups or women deprived of the right to vote
Double V campaign African American newspaper that urged African Americans to join the war and fight the racism of Hitler and US society
Sunbelt the regions of California and the Deep Southern States that became a location of industry during WWII
Zoot Suit the style of clothing worn by young Mexican-Americans of baggy jackets and pleated pants that attracted racist attacks by white sailors in Los Angeles during WWII
rationing govt. restrictions on the amount of items individuals could purchase during WWII to ensure the soldiers had supplies
Victory Gardens private gardens planted by patriotic citizens during wartime to ensure soldiers had supplies
WAC the Women's Army Corps that allowed women to join the war effort as nurses, pilots, and engineers
Bracero Program p.364 govt. sponsored migration of Mexicans to the US to work the fields, build roads, and maintain the railroads during WWII. Lasted until 1964
kamikaze desperate Japanese pilots suicide attacks on American ships in the Pacific that failed to stop US advance towards Japan
Navajo Code Talkers American Indians were used to relay messages in the Pacific because Japanese were unfamiliar with the languages
Island Hopping US military strategy of bypassing strong-held islands of the Japanese in favor of cutting them off from supplies
Convoy System to stop the sinking of merchant ships by German submarines, the US began grouping them together, and surrounded them with warships to escort them across the Atlantic Ocean
Operation Overlord (D-Day) June 6, 1944 allied invasion of Normandy, France to liberate Europe from Nazi control
Nuremberg Trials post-WWII courts that tried Nazi war criminals for crimes against humanity (Holocaust)
Manhattan Project the US secret program that successfully developed the first atomic weapons during WWII led by J. Robert Oppenheimer
satellite nations countries controlled by the Soviet Red Army that installed leaders who did not allow free elections and did the bidding of the Soviet Union
Iron Curtain term used by Winston Churchill to describe the post WWII division of Europe between the eastern Soviet-controlled nations and the western US-backed nations
United Nations Organization where nations gather to discuss global peace and collective security, headed by the 5-nation security council of atomic nations
NATO military alliance between the US, Canada, & 10 European nations to support each other against Soviet threats- a policy known as collective security
Tehran Conference meeting between the leaders of the US, Soviet Union, and England who agreed to divide Germany after WWII and create the United Nations
the Long Telegram memo sent by diplomat George Kennan that explained Soviet distrust of the US and the need to contain communism and allow it to fall apart on its own weaknesses
Containment Policy the foreign policy of President Truman that did not try to change the political situation in Europe, but worked to keep communism from spreading
the Truman Doctrine President Truman's pledge to offer military support to any nation facing attack by armed minorities or outside communist pressure--this committed the US to the role of Global Policeman, beginning in Greece & Turkey
the Marshall Plan Truman's plan of economic assistance to help European post-war recovery and provide relief. the plan helped eliminate political & economic instability which was a root cause of communism's attractiveness
the Berlin Airlift President Truman's response to the Soviet blockade of Berlin by airlifting supplies to the city until the crisis ended
Mao Zedong p. 405 communist leader of China who defeated Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist Party for control after WWII
the Korean War When communist North Korea invaded democratic South Korea, the US led a United Nation's force to restore the pre-war borders. General MacArthur was fired by Truman for demanding the US attack China and use nuclear weapons
the 38th parallel the post-Korean War boundary that divided North & South Korea by creating a demilitarized zone between them
limited war a war fought with limited commitment of resources to achieve a limited objective, such as containing communism
subversion efforts to weaken a society from withing or overthrow a government- the fear of what communist supporters in the US would do
Loyalty Review Program policy established by Truman in the wake of Red Scare of 1950s to ensure all federal employees took loyalty oaths to the US
Alger Hiss diplomat who was convicted of being a communist spy in the Roosevelt administration
the House Un-American Activities Committee Senate investigations set up to look into subversive activities in the US during the post-WWII period. The FBI under J.Edgar Hoover set up surveillance and wiretaps of American citizens
the Rosenberg Trial an American couple who were part of the communist party and were tried, convicted, and executed for selling atomic secrets to the Soviet Union
McCarthyism Senator Joseph McCarthy made widespread accusations against political enemies of being communists. His witch hunts eventually caused his downfall as tv coverage exposed them as without evidence
the McCarran Act law passed in the midst of the Red Scare of 1950s to force communist parties to reveal members, turn in passports, and allowed for them to be arrested without evidence
censure The Senate's formal disapproval of Joseph McCarthy for accusing various members of government of being communists without any evidence
Massive Retaliation foreign policy of President Eisenhower that used the threat of nuclear weapons to deter communist states from attacking democratic states
Brinksmanship the US foreign policy of the 1950s, which favored a willingness to go to the edge of war to force the Soviets to back down, by threatening nuclear attack
covert operations secret operations used by the CIA in developing nations to overthrow governments that did not support US policies and install pro-US governments
developing nations nations in Latin America, Africa, and Asia that were former colonies and had only recently gained independence but were not yet industrialized, relying primarily on agriculture & raw resources
the military-industrial complex upon leaving office, President Eisenhower warned the American people about the growing relationship between the military and the weapons industries that were influencing government policies, primarily to go to war (from which they would profit)
the Suez Crisis incident in which the British & French tried to seize control of the Suez Canal in Egypt; the US refused to help them and they backed down, but it turned Arab support towards the Soviets
Sputnik the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth that was launched in 1957 by the Soviets and revealed to the US how far it had fallen behind technologically
the space race in response to the Sputnik launch, the US formed NASA to develop a space program that would surpass the Soviets; the Soviets also worked to develop their own program
U-2 Spy Plane incident Soviet Union shot down American pilot Gary Powers, which proved the US had been spying on the Soviet Union for years
the GI Bill p. 430 the Service Readjustment Act of 1944 helped boost the economy by helping veterans establish businesses, attend college, and buy homes
closed shop an arrangement in which companies agree to hire only union workers
right-to-work laws laws that make it illegal to force people to join unions in order to be hired
1956 Federal Highway Act the largest public works program in US history that constructed 40,000 miles of highways and led to the growth of suburbs and faster commercial transportation
suburbia after WWII, Americans used their disposable income and veterans used their GI Bill loans to buy affordable, mass-produced homes in rapidly growing suburban communities like Levittown, NY; the highway system and autos helped
the Baby Boom a large increase in birthrates that followed the decade after WWII ended; the baby boomers would strain resources once they began retiring and receiving benefits like Social Security
white-collar jobs jobs in field that do not require hard labor, work clothes or protective clothes; office work
blue-collar workers workers who perform manual labor like manufacturing
multinational corporations large corporations with overseas investments
conformity public and government pressure to fit in to a uniform look or style and not stand out from society; inspired by the Red Scare and traditional religious values
Rock n Roll popular music played on electric amplified instruments and characterized by accented beats mixing country, folk, & blues
the generation gap the cultural separation between children and their parents that developed during the 1950s in response to pressure to conform to traditional values
the Beat Writers writers such as as Allen Ginsberg who criticized American culture for its sterility, conformity, and emptiness;
urban renewal govt. efforts to eliminate poverty by tearing down slums and building new high rises for poor residents
Native American termination policy a govt. policy to bring Native Americans into mainstream society by ending recognition of Native American groups as legal entitites
juvenile delinquency anti-social or criminal behavior by young people that increased in the 1950s
the missile gap p. 450 the misconception that JFK used to convince the American people of the need to increase defense spending to catch up to the Soviet nuclear program
Rosie the Riveter image of a muscle bound woman with a rivet gun that was effective at persuading large numbers of women to enter the workforce and armed forces to sustain the war effort
Korematsu v. US the 1944 Supreme Court ruling that upheld the constitutionality of Japanese internment policies during WWII
New Frontier JFK's domestic plan to support education, insurance for the elderly and urban reforms
Special Olympics program aimed to help children with developmental disabilities be physically competitive-run by Eunice Kennedy Shriver
Reynolds vs. Sims-1964 supreme court ruled that states must reapportion electoral districts to reflect the shift in population from rural to urban areas--along the principle of "one person, one vote"
reapportionment the method states use to draw up political districts based on changes in population
gerrymandering the re-drawing of political districts in ways that unfairly favor one party over another
due process judicial requirement that laws may not treat individuals unfairly and courts must follow proper procedures
Mapp vs. Ohio Supreme Court ruled courts cannot consider evidence obtained unconstitutionally
Gideon vs. Wainwright Supreme Court ruled all defendants have a right to an attorney if they cannot afford one
Escobedo vs. Illinois Supreme Court ruled suspects must be allowed access to lawyers
Miranda vs. Arizona Supreme Court ruled suspects must be informed of their rights to remain silent and anything said can be used against them
Engel vs. Vitale Supreme Court ruled schools could not force recital of prayer
Peace Corps program that sent young volunteers to developing nations to help teach, build infrastructure, and offer medical services
Neil Armstrong the first man to walk on the moon
Bay of Pigs Invasion plan created under Eisenhower & carried out by JFK to support a revolt by Cuban exiles to overthrow Fidel Castro; it failed due to lack of air support
Berlin Wall wall that served as a symbol of cold war divisions that was built to keep East Berlin dissidents from fleeing to the West
Cuban Missile Crisis crisis that developed when Soviet nuclear missiles were installed in Cuba; the US naval blockade led to a tense standoff that was resolved when the Soviets removed the missiles and the US removed some from Turkey and promised not to invade Cuba
Lee Harvey Oswald accused lone gunmen who killed JFK in Dallas, TX on Nov. 1963
The Great Society LBJ's domestic program that included programs to end poverty and improve the lives of the middle & lower classes; medicare, medicaid, head start, housing & urban development and clean air & water acts were some of the accomplishments
separate but equal doctrine established by the Plessy v. Ferguson ruling in 1896 that legalized public segregation as long as African Americans had their own facilities
de facto segregation segregation by customs and traditions, especially in the South
Brown vs. Board of Education Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" is inherently unfair and overturned the Plessy vs. Ferguson ruling, outlawing public segregation
Rosa Parks woman who refused to give up her seat to a white man in a segregated bus in Montgomery Alabama. Her arrest set off a boycott of the public buses and started the modern civil rights movement
Southern Christian Leadership Conference committee of African American ministers led by MLK Jr. who worked to end segregation and register blacks to vote
Little Rock Nine African American High School students who were the first to integrate Arkansas schools. President Eisenhower had to send federal troops to protect them from the angry white mob
Sit-In Movement movement to end public segregation by 4 students who sat down in "white-only" lunch counter. Supporters across the country did sit-ins in 300 other cities until the stores agreed to serve African Americans
Freedom Rides White and African American students organized rides to protest segregation in the interstate bus system in the South; despite suffering beatings by the KKK, the students helped end bus segregation by 1962
Selma March organized protest march from Selma to Birmingham, Ala. against restrictions on voting rights for African Americans; the marchers were beaten on national tv (Bloody Sunday), but resumed a few weeks later; led to passage of Voting Rights Act of 1965
Voting Rights Act of 1965 law that authorized federal examiners to bypass local officials and register African Americans to vote. It also outlawed literacy tests and poll taxes. these changes led to dramatic increases in the number of black voters
Civil Rights Act of 1964 law that ended segregation in schools and workplaces based on race, gender, religion, and national origin
March on Washington MLK led millions to nation's capital to demand passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. He gave his "I have a dream" speech
filibuster the Senate tactic of trying to kill a bill from becoming law by taking turns continuously speaking about anything until the bill's supporters give up
Watts Riot riots that erupted from incidents of police brutality in the Watts Neighborhood of Los Angeles in 1965 that lasted 6 days; other riots spread in urban centers
black power the mobilization of political and economic power of African Americans to fight for improvement to their poverty
Nation of Islam Muslim organization that stressed Black Nationalism and separation from white society; its leaders were corrupt and racist towards non-blacks and assassinated Malcolm X when he left the group
Malcom X originally an anti-white Nation of Islam speaker, Malcolm later changed to a cooperative policy with whites after a pilgrimage to Mecca; the Nation of Islam assassinated him to keep him quiet about its own corruptions
Black Panthers organized by Stokely Carmichael to promote African-American pride, such as Afros and dress, and the need for self -defense against white agression
Created by: wm0397