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Industrial Test


American economic transition at the end of the 1800s -New technologies reduced manufacturing costs and boosted productivity such as Railroads, Telephone, Air-Brake for trains,Typewriter, Electricity, etc. -The U.S. has a lot of raw materials in the states that allowed them to industrialize things for less$
America's first big business Railroads were considered America’s first big business. Created demand for steel, coal, lumber, oil, etc .Led to more rapid settlement of the west, created new markets for manufactured goods
Horizontal integration -The oil company(Rockefeller) -Without this businesses wouldn't be able to strive to create a industry-wide monopoly -His company is the process of a company increasing production of goods or services at the same part of the supply chain.
Vertical integration Owning Every step of a business process -think steal company (Carnegie) -This gives companies access to more production inputs, distribution resources and process and retail channels
Robber Barons -Label for business leaders who gained their wealth through corrupt/unfair business practices, often at the expense of society as whole. -Some call Rockefeller, Morgan, Vanderbilt and Carnegie this
Captain of industry -Label for business leaders whose wealth and success were earned through hard work. -They use their wealth to benefit society as a whole
The American $1 billion business -Carnegie, who later became a philanthropist, sold his company for >$400 million to a new steel combination headed by J. P. Morgan. -U.S. Steel, was not only this, but the largest enterprise in the world, controlling > 3/5 of the nation’s steel business
creation of timezone -When railroads were created people could get across the country quicker which meant there needed to be a way to keep tract of time -Railroad time became standard time for all Americans
abusive tactics of railroads companies in the late 1800s -Rebates: A practice by which a railroad would give money back to its favored customers, rather than charging them lower prices. -Pools: An illegal arrangement made between business leaders in an industry to set prices about a certain level.
National labor unions -The first attempt to organize all workers in all states -skilled, unskilled, agricultural, industrial workers -Founded in 1866, it had 640,000 members by 1868. -The 1st ____ believed in = rights for women & blacks - It lost support during depression
the knights of labor -Secret society in order to avoid detection by employers -Terence V. Powderly -1881 - “to make each man his own employer” -Abolition of child labor, trusts, and monopolies -Grew rapidly in the 1880s and peaked in 1886 -Declined after Haymarket riot
the American Federation of Labor -Concentrated on attaining practical economic goals -1886 as an association of 25 craft unions -Samuel Gompers wanted high wages and better working conditions -Initiated "walk-outs" -By 1901 it was the largest nat'l union
Railroad Strike of 1877 -Railroad companies cut wages in order to reduce costs - President, Rutherford B. Hayes, used federal troops to end labor violence -100s people had been killed -After the strike, some employers addressed the workers grievances while others became harsh
Pullman Strike -Manufactured the railroad sleeping cars -General cut in wages and fired the leaders of the workers -Workers left and asked for help from the American Railroad Union whose leader, Eugene V. Debs, directed railroad workers to boycott ___
The Haymarket Incident -Chicago -First May Day labor movement -On May 4, workers held a public meeting in Haymarket Square, and as police attempted to break up the meeting, someone threw a bomb, which killed seven police officers
Tactics of management of labor unions -Business leaders would form a "lock out" where they would "fire" workers for a couple weeks if they complained -employers would bring in strikebreakers or scabs: unemployed people desperate for jobs -Blacklisting -
Gospel of wealth -Rich people version of the Social Gospel -"I have been gifted with wealth because believes they can share with others"
Social Gospel -For the Middle Class -Problems in cities -Jane Adams
Social Darwinism -Herbert Spencer thought the idea of natural selection (survival of the fittest) should be in the marketplace -He said the concentration of wealth in the hands of the “fit” was beneficial for future generations -Will Sumner against preserving the poor
Late 1800s immigation
Where did immigrants settle in the late 1800s?
The Chinese Exclusion Act
Xenophobia Dislike of people from other countries
Problems of urbanization
Settlement Houses
Jane Adams -Hull House -Settlement House that helps people in the cities with anything they need -Not a real house; opposed to the dumbbell tenemnet
Dumbbell Tenements -Men making money buy renting space to live -Poor conditions that people lived in; some rooms had to windows and really compacted rooms that were never clean -Rules were made to improve living conditions ex) each room needed at least one window
Political machines
Thomas Nast
Horace Greeley
Herbert Spencer
Henry George
Edward Bellamy
Causes of agrarian discontent -Angry Farmers Why were they angry? -
Populists and the money supply
The Omaha Platform/ Populists Demands in 1892
Mary Elizabeth Lease
William Jennings Bryan
The Election of 1869
The Interstate Commerce Act
Created by: Vicki Hack
Popular U.S. History sets




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