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HSCI 131

Chapter 7 Respiratory System

carbon dioxide tasteless, colorless, odorless gas produced by body cells during metabolism
cartilage tough, elastic connective tissue that is more rigid than ligaments but less dense than bone
cilia hairlike structure, moves particles
diffuse to move or spread out a substance at random, rather than by chemical reaction or application of external forces
mucous membrane moist tissue layer lining hollow organs and cavities of that body that open to the environment, AKA mucosa
oxygen tasteless, odorless, colorless gas essential for human respiration
pH symbol that indicates the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance
septum wall dividing two cavities
serous membrane thin layer of tissue that covers internal body cavities and secretes a fluid that keeps the membrane moist, also called serosa
ventilation breathing
nasal cavity where air is drawn in, lined with mucous membranes and cilia. where air is filtered, heated and moistened
nasal septum vertical partition of cartilage dividing the nasal cavity into right and left sides
olfactory neurons receptors for the sense of smell
pharynx throat, a muscular tube that serves as a passageway for food and air with three sections (naso, oro, and laryngopharynx)
nasopharynx posterior to the nose, where adenoids (lymphoid tissue) are located
oropharynx posterior to the mouth, where tonsils are located
laryngopharynx superior to the larynx
larynx voice box, short passage that joins the the pharynx with the trachea
epiglottis leaf shaped structure on top of the larynx, seals off the air passage to the lungs during swallowing
trachea windpipe, provides rigidity to keep the air passage open
bronchi two branches of the trachea, one leads to the right lung and one leads to the left lung
bronchioles small branches of the bronchi
alveoli tiny air sacs at the end of the bronchioles, expand and contract with air inflow and outflow
pulmonary capillaries lie next to the thin tissue membranes of the alveoli. carbon dioxide diffuses through the blood here to enter the alveolar space
mediastinum space between the right and left lungs that contains the heart, aorta, esophagus and bronchi
pleura serous membrane that covers the loves of the lungs and folds over to line the walls of the thoracic cavity
visceral pleura membrane lying closest to the lung
parietal pleura the membrane that lines the thoracic cavity
pleural cavity space between the visceral and parietal pleural membranes, containing small amounts of lubricating fluid that permits the visceral pleura to glide smoothly over the parietal pleura during breathing
diaphragm large muscular partition, lying between the chest and the abdominal cavities, assists in changing the volume of the thoracic cavity to produce the needed pressure differential for ventilation
inspiration drawing air into the lungs
expiration air leaving the lungs
pulmonary ventilation breathing: largely involuntary, that moves air in and out of the lungs in response to changes in blood O2 and CO2 levels and nervous stimulation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles
external respiration exchange of O2 and CO2 between the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries
transport of respiratory gases occurs when blood, aided by the cardiovascular system, transports CO2 to the lungs and O2 to body cells
internal respiration exchange of O2 and CO2 between body cells and the blood in systemic capillaries
nas/o nose
rhin/o nose
rhinoplasty surgical repair of the nose
sept/o septum
sinus/o sinus, cavity
sinusotomy incision of any of the sinuses
adenoid/o adenoids
tonsill/o tonsils
pharyng/o pharynx (throat)
epiglott/o epiglottis
laryng/o larynx (voice box)
trache/o trachea (windpipe)
bronchi/o, bronch/o bronchus
alveol/o alveolus
pleur/o pleura
pneum/o air; lung
pneumon/o air; lung
pulmon/o lung
anthrac/o coal, coal dust
anthracosis abnormal condition of coal dust (in the lungs)
atel/o incomplete; imperfect
atelectasis incomplete expansion of the lung; also called airless lung or collapsed lung
coni/o dust
pneumoconiosis condition of dust in the lungs
cyan/o blue
lob/o lobe
orth/o straight
orthopnea breathing in a straight or upright position
ox/i or ox/o oxygen
pector/o, steth/o, thorac/o chest
phren/o diaphragm; mind
phrenospasm involuntary contraction of the diaphragm
spir/o breathe
-capnia carbon dioxide
-osmia smell
hypercapnia excessive CO2
anosmia without the sense of smell
-phonia voice
disphonia bad voice
-pnea breathing
-ptysis spitting
hemoptysis coughing up or spitting of blood
-thorax chest
py/o pus
brady- slow
dys- bad; painful; difficult
eu- good, normal
tachy- rapid
pulmonology medical speciality concerned with disorders of the respiratory system
pulmonologist physician who treats disorders of the respiratory system
bronchospasms spasms in the bronchial passages that may be sudden and violent
paroxysmal violent spasm
productive cough cough producing mucus
exacerbations flare-ups of the bronchial passage
mucolytics agents that loosen and break down mucus
bronchodilators medications that expand the bronchi by relaxing their smooth muscles
status asthmaticus life-threatening condition that can come from bronchospasms
chronic bronchitis inflammation of the bronchi caused mainly by smoking and air pollution
expectorants medications that aid in the removal of mucus by widening the air passages
emphysema decreased elasticity of the alveoli
influenza flu: acute infectious respiratory viral disease
pandemics worldwide epidemics
virulent highly infectious
myalgia muscle pain
pleural effusion any abnormal fluid in the pleural cavity
auscultation listening to sounds made by organs of the body using a stethoscope
percussion gentle tapping on the chest with the fingers and listening to the resultant sounds to determine the position, size or consistency of the underlying structures
transudate noninflammatory fluid that resembles serum but with less protein
exudate usually high in protein and commonly contains blood and immune cells
hydrothorax pleural effusions include serum
empyema or pyothorax pleural effusions includes pus
hemothorax pleural effusions include blood
pneumothorax air can entering the pleural space
thoracocentesis or thoracentesis surgical puncture of the chest using a hollow-bore needle
tuberculosis communicable disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
droplet nuclei droplets of respiratory secretions
viable alive organism
acid-fast bacillus AFB waxy coat of bacterium resists staining in the laboratory
primary tuberculosis the first time the TB organism enters the body, the disease develops slowly
tubercles typical inflammatory nodules
granulomas nodules
immunocompromised when the immune system becomes impaired
combination therapy treatment including several antibiotics at the same time
pneumonia any inflammatory disease of the lungs
aspiration pneumonias potentially fatal pneumonias resulting from food or liquid inhalation
lobar pneumonia pneumonia only affecting one lobe of the lung
consolidation swollen and engorged lung tissue
pneumocystis pneumonia PCP pneumonia closely associated with AIDS
normal flora organisms that reside in or on most people
opportunistic organisms becomes infectious
lavage bronchial washings
cystic fibrosis hereditary disorder of the exocrine glands that causes the body to secrete extremely thick mucus
viscous thick
aerosols mists
sweat tests measures the amount of salt excreted in sweat
acute respiratory distress syndrome ARDS condition in which the lungs no longer function effectively, threatening the life of a patient
systemic infections affect the entire body
hyaline membrane disease HMD: infant respiratory distress syndrome. most commonly seen in preterm infants
surfactant phospholipid substance that helped keep alveoli open
cyanosis blueness
nares nostrils
bronchogenic carcinoma lung cancer, malignancy that arises from the epithelium of the bronchial tree
acidosis excessive acidity of body fluids
anosmia absence of the sense of smell
apnea temporary loss of breathing
sleep apnea sleeping disorder in which breathing stops repeatedly for more than 10 seconds, causing measurable blood deoxygenation
asphyxia condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen
atelectasis collapsed or airless state of the lung, which may be acute or chronic and affects all or part of a lung
Cheyne-Stokes respiration repeated breathing pattern characterized by fluctuation in the depth of respiration; first deeply, then shallow, and then not at all
coryza acute inflammation of the membranes of the nose (head cold)
crackle abnormal respiratory sound heard on auscultation, caused by exudates, spasms, hyperplasia, or when air enters moisture filled alveoli
croup common childhood condition involving inflammation of the larynx, trachea, bronchial passages and sometimes lungs
deviated nasal septum displacement of cartilage dividing the nostrils that causes reduced airflow and sometimes nosebleed
epiglottitis severe, life-threatening infection of the epiglottis and supraglottic structures that occurs most commonly in children between 2 and 12 years of age
epistaxis nasal hemorrhage (nosebleed)
finger clubbing enlargement of the terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes commonly associated with pulmonary disease
hypoxemia oxygen deficiency in arterial blood, usually a sign of respiratory impairment
hypoxia oxygen deficiency in body tissues; usually a sign of respiratory impairment
pertussis acute, infectious disease characterized by a cough that has a "whoop" sounds
pleurisy inflammation of the pleural membrane characterized by a stabbing pain that is intensified by coughing or deep breathing
pneumoconiosis disease caused by inhaling dust particles, including coal dust, stone dust, iron dust, and asbestos particles
pulmonary edema accumulation of extravascular fluid in lung tissues and alveoli, most commonly caused by heart failure
pulmonary embolism blockage in an artery of the lungs caused by a mass of undissolved matter
rhonchus abnormal breath sound heard on auscultation of an obstructed airway
stridor high-pitched, harsh, adventitious breath sound caused by a spasm or swelling of the larynx or an obstruction in the upper airway
sudden infant death syndrome completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently normal, healthy infant, usually less than age 12 months
wheeze whistling or sighing sound heard on auscultation that results from narrowing of the lumen of the respiratory passageway
aerosol therapy lung treatment using various techniques to deliver medication in mist form directly to the lungs or air passageway
antral lavage washing or irrigating of the paranasal sinuses to remove mucopurulent material in an immunosuppressed patient or one with known sinusitis that has failed medical management
oximetry noninvasive method of monitoring the percentage of hemoglobin saturated with oxygen
polysomnography test of sleep cycles and stage using continuous recording of brain waves, electrical activity of muscles, eye movement, respiratory rate, BP
postural drainage method of positioning a patient so that gravity aids in the drainage of secretions from the bronchi and lobes of the lungs
pulmonary function tests variety of tests used to evaluate respiratory function, the ability of the lungs to take in and expel air as well as perform gas exchange across the alveolocapillary membrane
spirometry PFT that measures the breathing capacity of the lungs, including the time necessary for exhaling the total volume of inhaled air
endotracheal intubation procedure in which a plastic tube is inserted into a trachea to maintain an open airway
pleurectomy excision of part of the pleura, usually the parietal pleura
pneumectomy excision of a lung or a portion of the lung, commonly for treatment of cancer
septoplasty surgical repair of a deviated nasal septum usually performed when the septum is encroaching on the breathing passages or nasal structures
thoracentesis surgical puncture and drainage of pleural cavity
tracheostomy surgical procedure in which an opening is made in the neck and into the trachea into which a breathing tube may be inserted
Mantoux test intradermal test to determine tuberculin sensitivity based on a positive reaction where the area around the test site becomes red and swollen
bronchoscopy visual examination of the bronchi using an endoscope inserted through the mouth and trachea for direct viewing of structures or for projection on a monitor
laryngoscopy visual examination of the larynx to detect tumors, foreign bodies, nerve or structural injury or other abnormalities
mediastinoscopy visual examination of the mediastinal structures including the heart, trachea, esophagus, bronchus, thymus, and lymph nodes
arterial blood gas (ABG) test that measures dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide in arterial blood
sputum culture microbial test used to identify disease-causing organisms of the lower respiratory tract, especially those that causes pneumonias
throat culture test used to identify pathogens, especially group A streptococci
computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) minimally invasive imaging that combines computed tomography scanning and angiography to produce images of the pulmonary arteries
ventilation perfusion scan nuclear test scan that evaluates both airflow (ventilation) and blood flow (perfusion) in the lungs for evidence of a blood clot in the lungs
Created by: arehberg
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