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Mr. Stickler's Liberty Christian HNRS HIST Chap. 11 Test Flashcards 2017

What does the term "antebellum" mean? The decades before the Civil War, the period from 1815 to 1860; Latin for "before the war". (Pg. 286)
After the cotton boom from 1840 - 1850, some planters built large plantations and adopted a new culture. What were two (2) features of this new culture? 1.) "Paternalistic" feelings toward "social inferiors"; 2.) Educating children at academies & private "seminaries" so they could learn "proper" Southern manners & culture. (Pg. 287)
What "created a profitable interstate trade in slaves" despite the fact that international slavery had been banned? "The enormous demand for workers in the heart of the Cotton Belt." (Pg. 287)
List two (2) ways in which the lives of Southern women and girls (including plantation owner's wives) were often difficult and almost "slave - like". 1.) They were expected to exercise total control over slaves but remain obedient to white men; 2.) They were responsible for the household, raising & educating children, & running the plantation while their husbands were gone. (Pg. 288)
What does the term "paternalism" mean? Treating social dependents as a father treats his children, providing for their needs but denying them rights or responsibilities. (Pg. 287)
What kinds of jobs could free black women expect to find in the mid - 1800's? They could sometimes find work as washerwomen, seamstresses, cooks, folk healers, midwives, with a very small number of them becoming small business owners. (Pg. 290)
List two (2) diseases or injuries that slaves were likely to suffer. 1.) Hernia; 2.) Pneumonia. (Pgs. 291 & 292)
What are "fraternal organizations"? "Organizations in which private individuals freely associate as equals for mutually beneficial purposes." (Pg. 296)
Why did European immigrants form fraternal organizations in cities like New York, Philadelphia, and other cities? To overcome the loneliness, isolation, and powerlessness they experienced as newcomers to the United States. (Pg. 296)
What does the term "blue collar worker" mean? "Workers who wear work clothes, such as coveralls and jeans, on the jobs; their work is likely to involve manual labor." (Pg. 297)
What does the term "white collar worker" mean? "Workers able to wear white shirts on the job because they do no grubby manual labor." (Pg. 299)
What kinds of jobs does the term "extractive industry" include? Jobs such as trappers, fishermen, loggers, and miners are included in this term. (Pg. 302)
What were "forty-niners"? Why were they called this? "Forty-niners" were gold miners. They were called this because they moved westward in large numbers starting in 1849 after gold was discovered in northern California in 1848. (Pg. 303)
What were the three (3) main groups of people who began moving west in large numbers starting around 1825? 1.) Fur trappers; 2.) Miners; 3.) Land speculators. (Pg. 303)
Who was Brigham Young? He was Joseph Smith Jr.'s successor. He led a group of 1,600 Mormons to safety in the Great Salt Lake Valley. (Pg. 304)
Who was Joseph Smith Jr.? The Leader of a religious group founded in 1830 called the Mormons. This group was part of a number of Protestant groups who sent settlement parties out west to claim lands for themselves. (Pg. 303)
What did the Preemption Bill of 1841 state? This bill stated that pioneers (called "squatters") who had moved west and were living on land that was not legally theirs could purchase the lands they occupied. (Pg. 305)
What was the result of the passing of the Preemption Bill of 1841? Pioneers living on land they did not own often did not have the money to buy the land, but they kept living there. If they did have the money to buy the land, they were often unsuccessful at farming it & making it profitable. (Pg. 305)
What does the term "frontier line" refer to? "The outer limit of agricultural settlement bordering on areas still under Indian control or unoccupied." (Pg. 306)
How did Native Americans who had been "removed" to the West "simplify life" for pioneers/ "squatters" living in the Mississippi Valley? Native Americans cleared land for farming but were then forced off of these lands by the Indian Removal Act. European diseases also wiped out Native American populations, leaving lrg. tracts of land deserted. (Pg. 306)
What was one (1) way that life for migrants to areas like Michigan and Oregon differed from pioneers settling in the Mississippi Valley. Land surveyors had already divided the land into rectangular tracts; the surveys included provisions for a township, where settlers quickly established villages like the ones they left behind in New England. (Pg. 306)
How did entrepreneur William Henry Ashley "break the long tradition of depending exclusively on Indian labor for collecting furs"? Ashley did this by creating the "rendezvous system". He had trappers go and trap, cure, & pack animal furs in Missouri. Once a year, Ashley "rendezvoused" with them and collected furs, trading them to trappers for goods. (Pg. 303)
In what state did the "most impressive case of gold fever strike" in 1848? This case of "gold fever" struck the state of California in 1848. (Pg. 303)
What was one (1) way that members of the "genteel" class began to separate themselves from the "army of factory workers & lesser number of clerks"? This social class aimed for complete separation by spending their free time with one another in private clubs and "in church and civic organizations". They also began attending operas where they knew they would be among other "elites". (Pg. 301)
What was one (1) way that the lives of "genteel" women differed from women living in "traditional manufacturing households"? One (1) way they did this was taking part in leisure activities such as reading "good books", doing needlepoint, & forming art appreciation societies. (Pg. 301)
What does the term "cult of domesticity" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the belief that a woman's "proper role" was in domestic pursuits such as taking care of the family's children and the home. (Pg. 301)
List two (2) of teacher Bronson Alcott's ideas related to "infant depravity" that had dominated ideas about child rearing since the Colonial era. 1.) He stated that children should be treated as "free, self-guiding, & self-controlling" beings; 2.) He also stated that raising children was the mother's responsibility. (Pg. 301)
What made "direct contact between factory owners, workers, and products impossible" in northern manufacturing cities in the mid - 1850's? One (1) thing that caused this was the sheer size of factories. Factory owners could not do all of these tasks on their own, so they hired "middle managers" to do them for them. (Pg. 299)
What were "tenements"? This were very tiny apartments (created by dividing large houses) that were built in large urban cities (such as Chicago & New York City) to house "blue-collar workers". (Pg. 297)
Why did the newly developing middle class decide to put off marriage and "keep families small" in the mid - 1800's? Middle class families did this because they "felt compelled" to send their children to school, which meant that they could not work & help their families financially. Less money meant the need to have smaller families. (Pg. 299)
What does the term "guild" mean/refer to? This term refers to "associations of craftspeople with the same skills who join together to protect their common interests". (Pg. 292)
What does the term "journeymen" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a person who has finished an apprenticeship to learn a trade or craft and is a qualified worker 'in the employ of someone else'". (Pg. 293)
What were "slave codes"? These were very harsh laws related to the treatment of African slaves written during the early 19th century. Their purpose was to give slave owners near complete control over any slaves that they owned. (Pg. 290)
What does the term "noblesse oblige" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the belief that members of the elite are duty-bound to treat others charitably, especially those of lower social status than themselves". (Pg. 289)
What does the term "antebellum" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the decades before the Civil War (from 1815 to 1860). The term literally means "before the war". (Pg. 286)
Why were antebellum "cotton barons" able to gain tremendous economic, political, and social importance that was "out of proportion to their numbers"? These planters were able to do this because they controlled the biggest share of productive land and labor (i.e. slaves) in the South. (Pg. 287)
Created by: sticklerpjpII