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Genetics Definitions

TermDefinition
allele an alternative version of a gene
locus specific position on a chromosome occupied by a specific gene
crossing over where non-sister chromatids exchanged alleles during prophase I of meiosis
genotype alleles present within cells of an individual, for a particular trait
phenotype observable characteristics of an organism
recessive characteristic in which the allele responsible is only expressed in the phenotype if there is no dominant allele present
co-dominant a characteristic where both alleles contribute to the phenotype
linkage genes for different characteristics that are present at different loci on the same chromosome are linked
genome all the genetic information within an organism/cell
bivalent a pair of joined homologous chromosomes during prophase and metaphase of meiosis I
chiasmata the points where non-sister chromatids within a bivalent join, where they cross over
complementary genes genes that interact together to given the expression of a single characteristic
dominant characteristic in which the allele responsible is expressed in the phenotype even in those with heterozygous genotypes
DNA mutation a change to the DNA structure
epistasis the interaction of genes concerned with the expression of one gene
gene a length of DNA that codes for one or more polypeptides
gene pool total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members with a population of organisms
genomics the study of the whole set of genetic information in the form of DNA base sequences that occur in the cells of an organism of a particular species
homeobox genes genes that control the development of the body plan of an organism
monogenic characteristic coded for by one gene
operon a unit consisting of genes that work together under the control of an operator gene
polyploid eukaryotic organisms or cell with more than two sets of chromosomes
Created by: GraceAlston