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Exam 1

Out of Africa Model humans emerged on the continent of Africa 200,000 years ago and migrated to the rest of the world 100,000 years ago
Multiregional Theory homorectus emerged in Africa 300,000 years ago and migrated to the rest of the world 200,000 years ago
"Eve Model" all modern humans from a single African woman (Lucy of the nile)
Theory 1 of Pyramids pyramids were built by slaves
Theory 2 of Pyramids climate zone wasn't desert so artisans crafted the pyramids
Theory 3 of Pyramids aliens built the pyramids
Pyramids royal burial tombs
Martin Bernal "Race Debate" black egyptians colonized ancient Greece and became progenitors of Western civilizations
Mary Leftkowitz "Race Debate" modern racial categories irrelevant to ancient Egypt; egypt influenced Greek and Western civilizations
West Africa where 98% of Africans in the Transatlantic slave trade came from; home to a variety of cultures and languages (52 languages)
Empire of Ghana first known kingdom in the western Sudan; founded between fourth and eight centuries CE; destroyed by commerce and religin in the 12th century
Tenkamentim (1062-1076) first ancient ruler of West Africa; lived in a "fortified castle with stained glass windows and art throughout
Empire of Mali (1230-1468) larger than Ghana, greater rainfall, more crops, control of Wangara gold mines, population reached eight million
Sundiata led the Mandinka to victory over the Sosso in 1235
Mansa Musa reigned 1312-1337; pilgrimaged across Africa to Mecca in Arabia ; decreased the value of gold because he gave it out
Empire of Songhai (1461-1564) last and largest of the SUndanese empire
Sunna Ali reigned 1464-1492; conquered people paid trade affairs
Askia Muhammad Toure reigned 1492-1528; expanded empire; centralized administration of the empire; substituted taxation for tribute; established beuracratic trade regulation; used his power to spread Islam within the empire
Askia Duad reigned 1549-1582;
Portugese the first Europeans on the coast of West Africa; established trading centers along the Guinea coast
Women served as government officials in ancient Ghana; the enslaved in the royal court also held official posts; had increased sexual freedoms and could have male friends outside of their relatives (in ancient West Africa)
Sande a secret society for women; taught sex education to gins; emphasized female virtue; initiated into adulthood (cut off clitoris when completed)
Poro male secret society; established male conduct; emphasized ,ale honor (males got snipped when completed)
Royalty landed nobles, warriors, peasants, bureaucrats
Lower classes artisans and laboreers, blacksmiths, butchers, tanners, and oral historians
Slavery in West Africa common in the savannah region than other areas; variety of forms not necessarily a permanent condition
Islamic regions and slavery masters responsible for slaves; religious well-being
Non-Islamic regions and slavery children of slaves; legal to rights; not to be sold from the land they occupied; slaves in royal courts or in the armies ; owned property and often held power over free people; agricultural slaves
Religion in 15th cenury West Africa Islam introduced by Arab traders; the religion of merchants and bureacrats; fostered learning and building mosques in Wes Africa cities
Indigenous (traditional) religions strongest in forest areas; considered Polytheistic by Westerners; one creator God and a host of lessors gods; saw the force of God in all things; ancestor worship, magicians, and oracles; ceremonies and animal sacrifices
Western European countries expand during 15th century explore, conquer, and colonize; traded with eastern markets of India, China and Japan; demand for laboreers led to Atlantic slave trade
Slave trade in Africa ancient and universal phenomena; African kingdoms and Islamic nations conduct brisk commerce; not race based; Arab merchants and West Africa kings imported white slaves from Europe; dealt mainly in women and children who serve as concubines and servants
Atlantic slave trade harsher than West Africa, race based; most were males (believed they were stringer laborers than females); females did farm work (often withheld from trade)
Chattel slavery lost rights as human beings; were legal private property; seved masters for life
Triangle trade and profits slavery, tobacco, and sugar profits funded the Industrial Revolution
High mortality exhaustion, suicide, murder; long forced marches from interior to coast; one-third perish between capture and embarkation
Factories served as headquarters for traders; warehouses for trade goods; pens or dungeons for captures
The slavers small and narrow ships; two slaves per ship- tonnage formula; most captains were "tight packers"; crowded, unsanitary conditions; slaves rode in planks "66 x 15" (only 20'-25' of headroom); males chained together in pairs kept apart fromwomen and children
Provisions for Middle Passage slaves fed twice per day; poor and insufficient diet: vegetabke pulps, stews, and fruits, denied meat or fish; ten people ate from one bucket (unwashed hands spread disease
Historian Barbara Bush believed Middle passage horrors depressed sex drives
Pre sale bathed and exercised; oiled bodies to conceal blemishes and bruises; put hemp plugs into open wounds
Tobacco chesapeake; increased demands for labor and slaves; racial prejudice; fewer white indentured servants available; more Africans available; fear of class conflict
Rice low country; early settlers were immigrants from Barbados; brought slaves with them; never any black indentured servants
Slave codes sets of laws during the colonial period and'or in individual states after the American Revolution
Task system permitted autonomy without white supervision; preserved more of their African heritage
Gang slavery work 6 1/2 days get two holidays (Christmas and Master's birthday)
Miscegenation the interbreeding of people considered to be of different racial types; extensive in British North America in 17th and 18th centuries, though less accepted than in European sugar colonies in Caribbean, Latin America, or French Canada.
Creolization the process in which creole cultures emerge in the New World
Dutch created fried chicken
Created by: danat214



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