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HSCI 131

Chapter 5 Integumentary System

TermDefinition
integument skin
largest organ in the body skin
androgen generic term for an agent (usually a hormone, such as testosterone and androsterone) that stimulates development of male characteristics
ductule very small duct
homeostasis state in which the regulatory mechanisms of the body maintain an internal environment within tolerable levels, despite changes in the external environment
synthesize forming a complex substance by the union of simpler compound or elements
what does skin synthesize vitamin D
epidermis outer layer of the skin: relatively thin over most areas but thickest on the palms of hands and soles of feet. composed of several sublayers called strata
deepest layer of the epidermis basal layer
stratum corneum composed of dead, flat cells that lack a blood supply and sensory receptors
basal layer only layer of epidermis composed of living cells
keratin hard protein that forms in dead cells. relatively waterproof
melanocytes produce melanin
melanin black pigment that provides a protective barrier from the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation. difference in skin color is attributed to the amount of melanin in each cell
dermis second layer of skin, also called corium, lies beneath epidermis. composed of living tissues, capillaries, lymphatic vessels, and nerve endings, oil and sweat glands, and hair follicles are also found here
sebaceous glands oil glands
sudoriferous glands sweat glands
hypodermis subcutaneous layer: binds dermis to underlying structures. composed of loose connective tissue and fat interlaced with blood vessels. function is to store fat, insulate and cushion body, regulate temperature
exocrine glands secrete substances through ducts to an outer surface of the body instead of into bloodstream (ex: oil and sweat glands)
axillae armpits
sebum oily secretion given off when cells disintegrate
hair shaft visible part of the hair
hair root part embedded in the dermis
hair follicle the hair root and its coverings
papilla covering that encloses a loop of capillaries at the bottom of the hair follicle
nail root where each nail is formed
lunula region where new growth of nail occurs, half-moon shaped area at the base of the nail
adip/o fat
lip/o fat (lipocele: hernia containing fat)
steat/o fat (steatitis: inflammation of fatty tissue)
cutane/o skin
dermat/o skin
derm/o skin
hidr/o sweat (hidradenitis: inflammation of the sweat glands)
sudor/o sweat (sudoresis: profuse sweating)
ichthy/o dry, scaly (ichthyosis: abnormal condition of dry or scaly skin
kerat/o horny tissue; hard
melan/o black
myc/o fungus
onych/o nail
onychomalacia softening of the nails
ungu/o nail
ungual pertaining to the nails
pil/o hair (pilonidal: pertaining to hair in a nest)
trich/o hair
scler/o hardening or sclera of eye
seb/o sebum (seborrhea: discharge of sebum)
squam/o scale
xen/o foreign, strange (xenograft: skin transplantation from a foreign donor (usually a pig)
xer/o dry (xeroderma: dry skin)
-cyte cell
-derma skin
-logist specialist in the study of
lipocyte fat cell
pyoderma pus in the skin
dermatologist specialist in the study of skin disorders
cryotherapy use of cold in the treatment of disease
an- without, not
anhidrosis abnormal condition of not sweating
dia- through, across
diaphoresis excessive or profuse sweating (also called sudoresis or hyperhidrosis)
epidermis above the skin
homograft transplantation of tissue between individuals of the same species
subungual pertaining to beneath the nail of a finger or toe
lesions areas of tissue that have been pathologically altered by injury, wound or infection
localized lesion over an area of definite size
systemic widely spread throughout the body
primary skin lesions initial reaction to pathologically altered tissue and may be flat or elevated
secondary skin lesions changes that take place in the primary lesion due to infection, scratching, trauma, or various stages of a disease
first degree burns superficial: least serious type of burn because they only injure top layers of skin (epidermis). causes skin redness and sensitivity to touch
most common types of first degree burns thermal burn (contact with dry or moist heat), sunburn, chemical burn
erythema skin redness
hyperesthesia acute sensitivity to touch, heat or cold
second degree burns also called partial thickness burns: deep burns that damage the epidermis and part of the dermis. causes skin redness, sensitivity to touch, blisters
causes of second degree burns contact with flames, hot liquids, chemicals
third degree burns also called full thickness burns: epidermis and dermis and parts of connective tissue is damaged. leaves skin waxy and charred with insensitivity to touch
causes of third degree burns corrosive chemicals, flames, electricity, extremely hot objects, immersion of body in extremely hot water, clothing catching on fire
dermatoplasty skin grafting usually required to protect underlying tissue and assist in recovery
neoplasms abnormal growths of new tissues classified as benign or malignant
benign neoplasms noncancerous growths composed of same type of cells as the tissue in which they are growing
malignant neoplasms also called cancer: composed of cells that tend to become invasive and spread to remote regions of the body (metastasis)
immunotherapy also called biotherapy: newer treatment of cancer that stimulates the body's own immune defenses to fight tumor cells
pathologists grade and stage tumors to help diagnosis and treatment planning, provide a prognosis
tumor grading cells from the tumor site are evaluated to determine the degree of loss of cellular differentiation and function
tumor-node-metastasis system TNM system used for staging tumors. classifies solid tumors by size and degree of spread. T: size and invasiveness of primary tumor. N-area lymph nodes involved. M-invasiveness (metastasis) of the primary tumor
basal cell carcinoma most common type of skin cancer. is a malignancy of the basal layer of the epidermis or hair follicles. commonly caused by overexposure to sunlight
squamous cell carcinoma arises from skin that undergoes pathological hardening of epidermal cells. most common in fair-skinned white men over 60. 2 types: in situ or invasive. treatment: surgical incision, radiation therapy, curettage and electrodesiccation, chemotherapy
in situ squamous cell carcinoma confined to the original site
invasive squamous cell carcinoma penetrate surrounding tissues
malignant melanoma malignant growth of melanocytes. tumor is highly metastatic, higher mortality than basal or squamous cell carcinoma. greater risk with fair complexions, blue eyes, red or blonde hair and freckles.
abscess localized collection of pus at the site of an infection
acne inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles of the skin with characteristic lesions that include blackheads (comedos), inflammatory papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts and usually associated with seborrhea
alopecia partial or complete hair loss resulting from normal aging, an endocrine disorder, a drug reaction, anticancer medication, or a skin disease. also known as baldness
Bowen disease form of intraepidermal carcinoma (squamous cell) characterized by red-brown scaly or crusted lesions that resemble a patch of psoriasis or dermatitis
cellulitis diffuse (widespread) acute infection of the skin and subcutaneous tussues
chloasma pigmentary skin discoloration usually occurring in yellowish brown patches or spots
comedo typical small skin lesion of acne caused by accumulation of keratin, bacteria, and dried sebum plugging an excretory duct of the skin. also called blackheads
dermatomycosis infection of the skin caused by fungi
ecchymosis AKA bruise: skin discoloration consisting of a large, irregularly formed hemorrhagic area with colors changing from blue-black to greenish brown or yellow
eczema chronic inflammatory skin condition that is characterized by erythema, papules, vesicles, pustules, scales, crusts and scabs and accompanied by intense itching
erythema redness of the skin caused by swelling of the capillaries
eschar dead matter that is sloughed off from the surface of the skin, especially after a burn
impetigo bacterial skin infection characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture
keratosis thickened area of the epidermis or any horny growth on the skin (ex: callus or wart)
lentigo small brown macules, especially on the face and arms, brought on by sun exposure, usually in a middle-aged or older person
pallor unnatural paleness or absence of color in the skin
pediculosis infestation with lice, transmitted by personal contact or common use of brushes, combs or headgear
petechia minute, pinpoint hemorrhage under the skin
pressure ulcer inflammation, sore or skin deterioration caused by prolonged pressure from lying in one position that prevents blood flow to the tissues, usually in elderly bedridden persons
pruritus intense itching
psoriasis chronic skin disease characterized by circumscribed red patches covered by thick, dry, silvery, adherent scales and caused by excessive development of the basal layer of the epidermis
purpura any of several bleeding disorders characterized by hemorrhage into the tissues, particularly beneath the skin or mucous membranes, producing ecchymoses or petechiae
scabies contagious skin disease transmitted by the itch mite, commonly through sexual contact
tinea fungal skin infection whose name commonly indicates the body part affected. AKA ringworm
urticaria allergic reaction of the skin characterized by the eruption of pale red, elevated patches called wheals or hives
verruca epidermal growth caused by a virus; AKA warts
vitiligo localized loss of skin pigmentation characterized by milk-white patches
chemical peel chemical removal of the outer layers of skin to treat acne scarring and general keratoses: AKA chemabrasion
cryosurgery use of subfreezing temperature (commonly liquid nitrogen) to destroy or eliminate abnormal tussle, such as tumors, warts and unwanted cancerous or infected tissue
debridement removal of necrotized tissue from a wound by surgical excision, enzymes or chemical agents
dermabrasion rubbing (abrasion) using wire brushes or sandpaper to mechanically scrape away (abrade) the epidermis
fulguration tissue destruction by means of high-frequency electric current
photodynamic therapy (PDT) procedure in which cells selectively treated with an agent called a photosensitized are exposed to light to produce a reaction that destroys the cells
frozen section biopsy ultra thin slice of tissue from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examination
needle biopsy removal of a small tissue sample for examination using a hollow needle, usually attached to a syringe
punch biopsy removal of a small core of tissue using a hollow punch
shave biopsy removal of elevated lesions using a surgical blade
Mohs layers of cancer-containing skin are progressively removed and examined until only cancer-free tissue remains
skin graft transplantation of healthy tissue to an injured site
allograft transplantation of healthy tissue from one person to another person
autograft transplantation of healthy tissue from one site to another site in the same individual
synthetic skin graft transplantation of artificial skin produced from collagen fibers arranged in a lattice pattern
allergy skin test any test in which a suspected allergen or sensitizer is applied to or injected into skin to determine the patient's sensitivity to it
intradermal allergy test skin test that identifies suspected allergens by subcutaneously injecting small amounts of extracts of the suspected allergens and observing the skin for a subsequent reaction
patch allergy test skin test that identifies allergic contact dermatitis by applying a suspected allergen to a patch which is then taped on the skin, usually forearm, and observing the area 24 hours later for an allergic reaction
scratch allergy test skin test that identifies suspected allergens by placing a small quantity go the suspected allergen on a lightly scratched area of the skin. also called puncture or prick test
culture and sensitivity (C & S) lab test that grows a colony of bacteria removed from an infected area in order to identify the specific infecting bacterium ad then determine its sensitivity to antibiotic drugs
Created by: arehberg