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History 5-2 & 5-3

US History Study Guide 5-2 & 5-3

Popular Sovereignty A referendum vote on an issue…the issue back then was always slavery, this was the idea of Sen. Lewis Cass.
Lewis Cass A senator from Michigan who was nominated by Democrats for the election of 1848. He came up with the idea of Popular Sovereignty.
Wilmot Proviso This was the idea of David Wilmot. He was an Abolitionist. The Proviso said any territory acquired from Mexico would be a “Free” (no slavery)
Rep. David Wilmot A representative from Pennsylvania who came up with the idea of the Wilmot Proviso.
Election of 1848 During this presidential election the candidates tried to keep away from the idea of slavery. The major nominees were Lewis Cass and Zachary Taylor.
Zachary Taylor 12th president of the US. He was elected in the Election of 1848. He was elected because he was a war hero from the Mexican-American War.
Gold In 1848, gold was discovered in California - The gold was found at Sutter’s Mill (the property of John Sutter) by James Marshall - On the American River - They were building a sawmill -This led to the “Gold Rush”
49ers This was what the miners of the gold were called.
Compromise of 1850 A slavery compromise. Henry Clay's idea -California came in as a “free state” -Utah and New Mexico would decide the slavery question by popular sovereignty. -The slave trade was outlawed in Washington DC - A tougher fugitive slave law passed.
3 Great Senators During the Era 1810-1850 there were 3 major spokesmen (people that speak for others) in the North, South and West.
Daniel Webster from Massachusetts, the North’s spokesperson
John C Calhoun From Kentucky the “Great Compromiser” the West’s spokesperson
Henry Clay from Kentucky the “Great Compromiser” the North’s spokesperson
Fugitive Slave Law The part of the Compromise of 1850 that stated that all escaped slaves would be returned to their masters.
Stephen A Douglas A politician that came up with the Kansas-Nebraska act. He also debated Lincoln in the senate election of 1858. He won that election, but lost the presidential election 2 years later
Eli Whitney He invented the cotton gin and came up with the idea of interchangeable parts, which he used for guns.
Cotton Gin An invention by Eli Whitney, it cleaned cotton more quickly than by hand.
John Deere He invented the steel plow, which helped the settlers when they moved West into the Ohio valley.
Cyrus McCormick He invented the horse drawn reaper, which cuts wheat
Joseph Glidden He invented barbed wire, which helped settlers move West and keep their livestock on their property.
Slavery Slavery started in America in 1619. The first slaves came to America on a Dutch ship. The first slaves were indentured servants. Most white people in the South did not own slaves! Slavery was an economic system. The “best” slaves were 13-year old girls
Uncle Tom’s Cabin A book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, she lived in Brunswick Maine. The book was about the life of a slave and showed how hard a slave’s life was.
Abolitionists Abolitionists are people that wanted to “abolish” (get rid of…stop) slavery. Most of the abolitionists were religious people
William Lloyd Garrison An abolitionist, the publisher of the “The Liberator” newspaper
Harriet Tubman An abolitionist, the conductor of the Underground Railroad
Frederick Douglas An abolitionist, an escaped slave, he published the newspaper “The North Star”
Kansas-Nebraska Act This was Stephen A Douglas' idea in 1854. It overturned the Missouri Compromise and opened up Louisiana territory to possible slavery. The slavery question was decided by “popular sovereignty” This started a “mini” civil war in Kansas
“Bleeding Kansas” The nickname of the “mini” civil war in Kansas.
Beecher’s Bibles Were the name given to the rifles that were supplied to the anti-slavery immigrants in Kansas.
Pottawatomie Creek Massacre In 1854 Brown led the Pottawatomie Creek Massacre in Kansas during the mini-civil war
John Brown Was a fanatical abolitionist. He led the Pottawatomie Creek Massacre and the raid on Harpers Ferry