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Method vs methodology Quan / qual Experimental/causal comparative/correlational/survey/history/action
Internal Validity Subject characteristics Loss of subjects Location Instrumentation Testing History Maturation Attitude of subjects Regression Implementation
Subject Characteristics Selection of people In studies that compare groups, control causes of difference based on literature age, maturity, gender, speed
Instrumentation Instrument decay - takes too long to mark - fatigue Data collector characteristics Data collector bias
Testing Pretest results affect posttest
History Unexpected events that may affect the responses of subjects.
Attitude of subjects Hawthorne Effect - participants pay special attention - novelty
Regression low performing group will score high in the next test
Implementation When implementation differs - especially when different people other than researchers take part personal bias over a topic than another
Credibility and Trustworthiness 1 Using a variety of instruments to collect data - triangulation. Checking one informant’s descriptions of something. Discrepancies in descriptions may mean the data are invalid. Learning to understand and, where appropriate, speak the vocabulary of the
Credibility and Trustworthiness 2 Writing down the questions asked. Recording personal thoughts while conducting observations and interviews-researcher reflexivity Asking one or more participants in the study to review the accuracy of the research report-member checking
Credibility and Trustworthiness 3 Obtaining an individual outside of the study to review and evaluate the report-external audit Describing the context in which questions are asked and situations are observed-thick description Using audiotapes and videotapes when possible and appropriate
Credibility and Trustworthiness 4 Interviewing individuals more than once. Inconsistencies over time in what the same individual reports may suggest that he or she is an unreliable informant. Observing the setting or situation of interest over a period of time.
Education intentional behavior change
Informal education not planned, TV, magazines, life-long learning
experience A process resulting in change in behaviour or skill
Learning Understanding and having conception of a piece of information
Teaching Instructing learners
Instruction the way teaching is delivered
S>M>T S-cooperative learning M - jigsaw T - approach/variation
Classical conditioning learning refers to involuntary responses that result from experiences that occur before a response. It occurs when you learn to associate two different stimuli.
Operant conditioning It involves changing voluntary behaviors. A behavior response is followed by either reinforcement or punishment. Reinforcement following a behavior will cause the behavior to increase, but if behavior is followed by punishment the behavior will decrease.
Laws of learning - Thorndike 1. Law of effect 2. Law of exercise 3. Law of readiness 4. Law of primacy 5. Law of recency 6. Law of intensity 7. Law of freedom
Behavior Modification Techniques Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction Flooding Systematic desensitization Aversion therapy
Piaget's Schema Schema > Assimilation > Accommodation > Equilibrium
Bugelski Goals and criteria of success must be written out and supplied to all students. This can be in the form of a syllabus with all questions to be answered included. The student should always know what is expected of him.
Feedback Objectivism-Information Processing-Socioculturalism-Visible teaching and modes of feedback
Examples 1. to be able to decode meaning 2. to be able to transfer learning superficial knowledge, elicitation is the key if not interactive, self explanations, worked examples vs usual problem solving (cognitive load)
Self Explaining Self-explaining is a learning strategy in which a learner elaborates upon the presented sentences or example lines by relating them to prior knowledge, making inferences from them, and integrating them with prior texts or example lines.
Self explaining If subjects are forced to do something overtly, they are more likely to learn. A learner who overtly undertakes some learning behaviour is more likely to be cognitively engaged than a learner who does not behaviourally exhibit any learning activities.
Utilitarian Models Provus discrepancy model, CIPP Stake’s Countenance Scriven’s Goal-Free evaluation
Pluralist Judicial/adversarial model Eisner’s educational connoisseurship and criticism Stake’s Responsive Evaluation Illuminative evaluation
Objectives Oriented Tylerian Model Metfessel - Michael Provus' Discrepancy Goal free
Management Oriented CIPP UCLA
Consumer Oriented A summative approach
Expertise Oriented Subjective professional judgments: Direct, open reliance on subjective professional expertise as the primary evaluation strategy. Usually a team of experts, who complement each other.
Participant Oriented
Effective Curriculum Scope: depth – What knowledge is of most worth? Relevance: What should be taught? Balance Integration Sequence Continuity: Planned repetition – spiral curriculum – dig deeper Articulation: organizing elements across levels – no gaps Transferability
Sequence Maturity, interests, readiness, relationship between items, prerequisite skills needed 1. simple to complex 2. chronological – reverse 3. geographically 4. concrete to abstract 5. general to particular
Dick & Reiser 1. Identify instructional goals 2. Identify learning objectives 3. Plan instructional activities 4. Choose instructional media 5. Develop assessment tools 6. Implement instruction 7. Revise instruction
Sampling in Qualitative Research Typical Critical Homogeneous Extreme case Theoretical Opportunistic Confirming Maximal-variation Snowball
Created by: sercancelik