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Civics Final

Unit 5: Judicial Branch & Tightrope Walking

writ of certiorari an order from the supreme court to a lower court to provide the records of a case the court has decided to review
precedent a decision by a court that serves as an example or guide for future decisions
jurisdiction the subject matter over which a court may exercise authority, also a court's power to hear a case
preponderance of evidence the idea that the weight of the plaintiff's evidence in a civil trial clearly points to the defendant being at fault
beyond a reasonable doubt the legal principle that the evidence presented in a trial must allow for no other reasonable explanation than the one given..." " is part of the instruction given by a judge to a jury in a criminal case
judicial review the power of the courts to declare laws and executive acts unconstitutional
majority opinion explains why the majority of the judges decided the case the way they did
concurring opinion written by someone who sided with the majority but for different reasons
dissenting opinion written by one member of the minority side and explains for their disagreement
judicial activism supreme court should use its power of judicial review to overturn bad precedents and promote socially desirable goals
civil society associations and other voluntary groups that form a middle layer in society between government and individual families
sovereignty the right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region, a group of people, or oneself
centrism middle of the political spectrum that combines elements of both liberal and conservative thought
conservatism favoring a limited role for government and more private initiative by nongovernmental groups in efforts to solve society's problems
liberalism favoring an active role for government, in efforts to solve society's problems
Political Action Committees an organization that raises and distributes funds to candidates running for office
primary election voters determine their party's nominee for an elective office
midterm election held in the even numbered years between presidential elections
off year election an election held in odd numbered years
filibuster the tactic of using endless speeches on the senate floor to delay or prevent passage of legislation. not permitted in the house
cloture the process used to end a filibuster in the senate. 60 senators must support a cloture vote to overcome a filibuster
mark up a meeting of a legislative committee at which members amend, or "mark up" a bill before putting it to vote
executive order a rule or regulation issued by a president or governor that has the force of law
rule of law government is based on clear and fairly enforced laws and that no one is above the law
social contract the idea that the legitimacy of a government stems from an unwritten contract between the ruler and the ruled. a ruler who breaks this contract by abusing people's rights loses legitimacy and may be overthrown
natural law moral principals believed to come from humans basic sense of right and wrong that can be applied to any culture or system of justice
natural rights rights that all people have by virtue of being a human being
federalism a political system in which power is divided between a central government and smaller regional governments
isolationism foreign policy view that the US should withdraw from world affairs
veto the power of the president to reject a bill and send it back to congress
implied powers powers of the national government and particularly of congress, that are not specifically listed in the constitution, but which the government can reasonably claim as part of its governing responsibility
bicameral made up of 2 houses, as in bicameral legislature
enumerated powers powers of the national government that are specifically listed in the US constitution
presidential election held every 4 years on even numbered years
lobbyist an organized effort to influence the policy process by persuading public officials to favor or oppose action on a specific issue
media bias real or imagined prejudice that is thought to affect what stories journalists cover and how they report those stories
independent judiciary a system of judges and courts that is separate from other branches of government
popular sovereignty the principle that the people are the ultimate source of authority and legitmacy of a government
anti-federalists opponents of ratification of the US constitution, favored loose association of states, established the articles of confederation
limited government powers exercised by the government are restricted, usually by a written constitution
separation of powers powers of a government should be split between 2 or more strongly independent branches to prevent any one person or group from gaining too much power
federalists supporters of ratification of the US constitution, favored the creation of strong federal government and shared power with the states
Created by: karjones4



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