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HNRS HST UNIT 5 2018

Mr. Stickler's Liberty Christian Honors History Unit 5 Test flashcards 2018

QuestionAnswer
Why could "long staple cotton" be harvested more economically than "short staple cotton"? The reason for this was that "long staple cotton" was longer and more fibrous, which made it easier and much faster to pick seeds from the cotton boll than "short staple cotton". (Pg. 247)
List 3 reasons why cotton became the United States' dominant export in the 1800's. 1.) An increase in the demand for cotton worldwide; 2.) The invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney; 3.) A nearly unlimited pool of very cheap laborers because of slavery in the United States.
List 3 technological developments that "set the stage" for rapid expansion of cotton production. 1.) The "flying shuttle" made weaving cotton much easier; 2.) The "spinning jenny" made it possible to use multiple spindles to spin cotton into thread; 3.) The "water frame" made it possible to use water power to drive the spinning process.
What led to an increase in the demand for cotton in Europe? A change in consumer preferences from clothing made out of of materials to clothing made out of cotton, which was much softer and more comfortable to wear.
How did the cotton gin improve the cotton production process? This invention made it much easier to remove the tiny seeds from the cotton boll. Went from 1 slave being able to process 1 pound of cotton a day to 1 cotton gin being able to process 50 pounds of cotton a day.
What does the term "Black Belt" mean where cotton production is concerned? This term refers to the states that had soil that was best suited for growing cotton including: Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, & Louisiana. These states were named this due to the color of the soil.
How much of the world's cotton was produced by the American South by 1850? Two - thirds of the world's cotton was produced in this region by 1850.
Who did the Boston Associates turn to when they needed workers for their giant looms and mills? The Boston Associates turned to young women from farms where most New Englanders still lived.
List 3 reasons why women decided to start working in factories and mills in the New England states in the early 1800's. 1.) Farm life was hard; 2.) Because they were kept in "subservient positions on farms; 3.) Because working in factories and mills would give them their own income & some financial independence.
Why was the city of Lowell, Massachusetts built where it was in 1823? This city was located here because it was near the Merrimack River, which had a 30 - foot drop that was used to power the cotton mills to turn the cotton into cloth.
What led the "Lowell Girls" - the name given to women who worked at the cotton mill in Lowell, Massachusetts - to go on strike in 1834? The reason they did this was because working conditions in the mills had gotten worse as the demand for more cotton increased dramatically.
Where was most American cotton exported to in the early 1800's? Most of this was shipped to Leeds and Manchester in Great Britain
List 3 reasons why New York City became a center for cotton exports in the early 1800's. 1.) It had an "extraordinary deep - water harbor"; 2.) There were already "miles of docks and a community of merchants" to handle that much business; 3.) It already had experienced dockworkers & longshoremen to handle all of the ships.
List 3 goods that ships brought back to the United States from Europe after they sold and off-loaded their cargo of cotton. 1.) Iron & steel tools from Sheffield, England; 2.) Wine from France; 3.) Manufactured goods that could be purchased more cheaply than if made in the United States.
What was the relationship between banks in New York City and cotton in the early 1800's? Cotton growers needed money and credit to buy the seed and fertilizer necessary to plant their crops. Corporations needed credit to build new cotton mills to process cotton. Banks provided both of these.
What was the relationship between New York City based insurance companies and the cotton industry in the early 1800's? These businesses sold southern plantation owners life insurance policies for their slaves to "protect the plantation owner's investments".
What is/ was the Erie Canal? This was a 363 mile, man - made system of dams and locks that allowed ships to transport good and people from the Hudson Valley directly to Buffalo, New York.
Who proposed the building of the Erie Canal? New York city mayor DeWitt Clinton proposed this when he was running for governor of the state of New York in 1816.
List 2 of the impacts that building the Erie Canal had on the economy and culture of the U.S. after it was built. 1.) Goods were shipped between Lake Erie and New York City much more cheaply; 2.) Formerly isolated farmers and their families could send letters and visit their friends and relatives.
What was 1 way that steamboats helped to improve the U.S. economy after they were invented. One reason they did this was because they could travel upstream against the current.
What was the first federally financed road in the U.S. made of? The first federally financed road was made out of gravel.
How fast could a stagecoach travel on roads in the 1820's and 1830's? Stagecoaches could travel 6 to 8 miles an hour on these roads.
List 1 thing that improved travel and faster travel times led to in the United States in the early 1800's. Newspapers sprang up in cities near roads and waterways.
List 2 essential services that U.S. state - chartered banks provided. 1.) They printed paper money that was backed by gold and silver; 2.) They made loans and collected interest, allowing people to start new businesses and banks to earn a profit.
What was 1 way that the development of a market economy helped farmers by the 1820's? One way that this helped farmers was by allowing them to sell their goods for cash, which they could use to buy necessities and luxuries.
What Constitutional clause resulted from the decision in the McCulloch vs. Maryland Supreme Court case? The "necessary and proper" clause resulted from this case.
What was the "American System"? This was the name for a system of government subsidies that was used to finance the building of roads and canals in the U.S. The purpose was to improve the economic infrastructure of the country.
What did the Supreme Court decide in the "Gibbons vs. Ogden" case? The Supreme Court ruled that New York could not award Ogden a monopoly on ferry service between New York and New Jersey because it involved interstate commerce, which only Congress can regulate.
What did the Supreme Court decide in the "Worcester vs. Georgia" case? The Supreme Court ruled that Georgia could not regulate private dealings by U.S. citizens in the territory controlled by the Cherokee tribe since the tribe had sovereign rights & were only subject to control by the U.S. government.
What was the Missouri Compromise? This was a compromise in Congress between free and slave states in 1820. Maine was admitted as a free state, Missouri was admitted as a slave state, & slavery was prohibited north of 36 minutes, 30 seconds north latitude.
List 3 things that the Whig Party advocated for in 1826. 1.) Strong national government role in the U.S. economy; 2.) Internal improvements such as roads & canals: 3.) General social reform movements.
List 2 things that the Democratic Party advocated for in 1826. 1.) A limited role for the national government in general; 2.) Limited role of the federal government in economic affairs.
What was the Indian Removal Act? Law passed by Congress in 1830 that granted funds for the "removal and resettling" of Native America tribes living east of the Mississippi River to reservations in the west.
What did the U.S. Supreme Court rule in the "Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia" case? They Supreme Court ruled that the tribe was a "domestic dependent nation" and could not be forced by the state of Georgia to give up lands that treaty rights the U.S. government had granted them.
What was the "Cherokee Trail of Tears"? This was the name given to the path taken by Cherokee Indians living in Georgia when they were forcibly resettled to "Indian Territory" in the west. Thousands of Cherokee Indians died along the way.
Who was Lyman Beecher? He was a social reformer in the U.S. in the 1830's.
What was 1 organization the Lyman Beecher created in the 1830's? He created the Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati, Ohio whose purpose was to train future preachers, strengthen religious colleges, and place Protestant preachers is hundreds of Midwestern churches.
List the name of 1 group of people that Dorothea Dix helped during the 1830's. She helped the mentally ill, advocating for better treatment for them when they were placed in asylums and hospitals.
What was Robert Owen's goal for the community that he established in New Harmony, Indiana? His goal was to establish a community in which everyone in the community benefited from its member's labor (known as "universal welfare").
Created by: sticklerpjpII