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HSCI 131

Chapter 4 Body Structure

chromatin structural component of the nucleus, composed of nucleic acids and proteins. condenses to form chromosomes during cell division
chromosome threadlike structure within the nucleus composed of DNA that carries hereditary information encoded in genes.
each sperm and each egg has ______ unpaired chromosomes 23
after fertilization, each cell of the embryo has _____ chromosomes 46 (23 pairs)
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid: molecule that holds genetic information capable of replicating and producing an exact copy whenever the cell divides
diaphragm muscular wall that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
metabolism sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism
organelle cellular structure that provides a specialized function
function of the nucleus reproduction, metabolism and growth, carries genetic blueprint
function of the ribosomes protein synthesis
function of the golgi apparatus removal of material from the cell
function of the lysosomes digestion
levels of organization of the body in order from least to most complex cell, tissue, organ, system, organism
cell smallest structural and functional unit of life
function of cells utilizing food, eliminating waste, reproducing
three main parts of a cell cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus
cytology study of the body at the cellular level
function of the cell membrane acts as a barrier that supports and protects the intracellular contents
cytoplasm jellylike matrix of proteins, salts, water, dissolved gases, and nutrients
histology study of tissues
4 major tissues of the body epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
epithelial tissue covers surfaces of organs, lines cavities and canals, forms tubes and ducts, makes up epidermis of the skin
connective tissue supports and connects other tissues and organs. made up of fibroblasts, fat cells and blood
muscle tissue provides the contractile tissue of the body which is responsible for movement
nervous tissue transmits electrical impulses as it relays information throughout the entire body
anatomical position body posture used to locate anatomical parts or divisions. body standing erect and facing forward. arms at the sides with palms with palms facing forward
plane a plane is an imaginary flat surface that divides the body into two sections
median plane midsagittal: right and left halves
frontal plane coronal: anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) aspects
horizontal plane transverse: superior (upper) and inferior (lower) aspects
dorsal cavity includes: cranial and spinal
ventral cavity includes: thoracic and abdominopelvic
what major organ is found in the cranial cavity brain
what major organ is found in the spinal cavity spinal cord
what major organ is found in the thoracic cavity heart, lungs, and associated structures
what major organ is found in the abdominopelvic cavity digestive, excretory, and reproductive organs and structures
abbreviation and major structures located in the right upper abdominopelvic quadrant RUQ right lobe of the liver, gallbladder, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines
abbreviation and major structures located in the left upper abdominopelvic quadrant LUQ left lobe of the liver, the stomach, the spleen, part of the pancreas, part of small and large intestines
abbreviation and major structures located in the right lower abdominopelvic quadrant RLQ part of the small and large intestines, appendix, right ovary, right fallopian tube, right ureter
abbreviation and major structures located in the left lower abdominopelvic quadrant LLQ part of small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter
location of right hypochondriac region upper right lateral region beneath the ribs
location of the epigastric region upper middle region
location of the left hypochondriac region upper left lateral region beneath the ribs
location of the right lumbar region middle right lateral region
location of the umbilical region region of the navel
location of the left lumbar region middle left lateral region
location of the right inguinal (iliac) region lower right lateral region
location of the hypogastric region lower middle region
location of the left inguinal (iliac) region lower left lateral region
abduction movement away from the midsagittal (median) plane of the body or of one of its parts
adduction movement toward the median plane of the body
medial pertaining to the midline of the body or structure
lateral pertaining to a side
superior (cephalad) toward the head or upper portion of a structure
inferior (caudal) away from the head, or toward the tail or lower part of a structure
proximal nearer to the center (trunk of the body) or to the point of attachment to the body
distal further from the center (trunk of the body) or from the point of attachment to the body
anterior (ventral) front of the body
posterior (dorsal) back of the body
parietal pertaining to the outer wall of the body cavity
visceral pertaining to the viscera, or internal organs, especially the abdominal organs
prone lying on the abdomen, face down
supine lying horizontally on the back, face up
inversion turning inward or inside out
eversion turning outward
palmar pertaining to the palm of the hand
plantar pertaining to the sole of the foot
superficial toward the surface of the body (external)
deep away from the surface of the body (internal)
cyt/o cell (cytologist: specialist in the study of cells)
hist/o tissue (histology: study of tissues)
kary/o nucleus (karyolysis: destruction of the nucleus)
nucle/o nucleus (nuclear: pertaining to the nucleus)
anter/o anterior, front (anterior: pertaining to the front)
caud/o tail (caudad: toward the tail)
cephal/o head (cephalad: toward the head)
dist/o far, farthest (distal: pertaining to the farthest point of attachment)
dors/o back (of body) (dorsal: pertaining to the back (of the body)
infer/o lower, below (inferior: pertaining to a lower structure)
later/o side, to one side (lateral: pertaining to a side)
medi/o middle (mediad: toward the middle)
poster/o back (of body), behind, posterior (posterior: pertaining to the back of the body)
proxim/o near, nearest (proximal: pertaining to the nearest point of attachment)
ventr/o belly, belly side (ventral: pertaining to the belly side)
abdomin/o abdomen
cervic/o neck
crani/o cranium (skull)
gastr/o stomach
illi/o ilium
inguin/o groin
lumb/o loins (lower back)
pelv/i, pelv/o pelvis (pelvimeter: instrument for measuring the pelvis)
spin/o spine
thorac/o chest
umbilic/o navel
albin/o white (albinism: condition of whiteness)
leuk/o white (leukocyte: white cell)
chlor/o green
chrom/o color (heterochromic: pertaining to different colors)
cirrh/o yellow (cirrhosis: abnormal yellowing)
jaund/o yellow (jaundice: yellowing)
xanth/o yellow (xanthosis: abnormal condition of yellowness
cyan/o blue (cyanotic: pertaining to blueness)
erythr/o red (erythrocyte: red cell)
melan/o black (melanoma: black tumor)
poli/o gray; gray matter (poliomyelitis: inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord)
acr/o extremity
eti/o cause
idi/o unknown, peculiar (idiopathic: pertaining to an unknown cause of disease)
morph/o form, shape, structure
path/o disease
radi/o radiation
somat/o body
son/o sound
tom/o to cut (tomography: process of recording a cut)
viscer/o internal organs (visceral: pertaining to internal organs)
xer/o dry (xerosis: abnormal condition of dryness)
-genesis forming, producing, origin (pathogenesis: origin of disease)
-gnosis knowing (prognosis: knowing before)
-gram record, writing (arteriogram: record of an artery)
-gragh instrument for recording
-graphy process of recording
-logist specialist in the study of
-logy study of
-meter instrument for measuring
-metry act of measuring
-pathy disease (gastropathy: disease of the stomach)
ab- from, away from (abduction)
ad- toward
hetero- different
homeo- same, alike
infra- below, under (infracostal: pertaining to the area below the ribs)
peri- around
super- upper, above
trans- across, through
ultra- excess, beyond
homeostasis stable internal environment
signs objective indicators that are observable
symptom subjective indicator of disease
diagnosis establishing the cause and nature of a disease (Dx)
prognosis: prediction of the course of a disease
sequelae complications that arise from a disease, treatment or injury
adhesion abnormal fibrous band that holds or binds together tissues that are normally seperated
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity
edema abnormal accumulation of fluid within tissue space
febrile pertaining to a fever, also called pyretic
gangrene death and decay of soft tissue, usually caused by circulatory obstruction, trauma or infection
hernia protrusion of any organ through the structure that normally contains it
inflammation body defense against injury, infection, or allergy marked by redness, swelling, her, pain and sometimes loss of function
mycosis any fungal infection in or on the body
perforation hole that completely penetrates a structure
peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum, the serous membrane that surrounds the abdominal cavity and covers its organs
rupture sudden breaking or bursting of a structure or organ
sepsis pathological state, usually febrile, resulting from the presence of microorganisms or their products in the bloodstream
suppuration producing or associated with the generation of pus
infusion therapy delivery of fluids directly into the blood stream via a vein for treating various disorders; also called IV therapy
alblation removal of a part, pathway, or function by surgery, chemical destruction, electrocautery, freezing, or radio frequency
anastomosis surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another
cauterize destruction of tissue by electricity, freezing, heat, or corrosive chemicals
curettage scraping of a body cavity with a spoon-shaped instrument called a curet
incision and drainage (I & D) incision made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of fluids from a wound or cavity
laser surgery use of a high intensity laser light beam to remove diseased tissues, stop bleeding blood vessels, or for cosmetics purposes
resection removal of part of all of a structure, organ or tissue
revision surgical procedure used to replace or compensate for a previously implanted device or correct an undesirable result or effect of a previous surgery
assessment techniques sequence of procedures designed to evaluate the health status of a patient
inspection general observation of the patient as a whole, progressing to specific body areas
palpation gentle application of the hands to a specific structure or body area to determine size, consistency, texture, symmetry, and tenderness of underlying structures
percussion tapping a structure with the hand or fingers to assess consistency and the presence absence of fluids within the underlying structures
auscultation listening to the heart, bowel and lungs with or without a stethoscope to assess the presence and quality of sounds
endoscopy visual examination of a body cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument called an endoscope
blood chemistry analysis laboratory test, usually performed on serum, to evaluate various substances to determine whether they fall within a normal range
complete blood count (CBC) panel of blood tests used as a broad screening test for anemias, infections, and other diseases
organ-disease panels series of blood tests used to evaluate a specific organ (liver panel) or disease (anemia panel)
computed tomography (CT) imaging technique in which an x-ray emitter rotates around the area to be scanned and a computer measures the intensity of transmitted x-rays from different angles
fluoroscopy technique in which x-rays are directed through the body to a fluorescent screen that displays internal structures in continuous motion
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field, rather than an x-ray beam, to produce highly detailed, multiplanar, cross-sectional views of soft tissues
nuclear scan technique in which a radioactive material (radiopharmaceutical) called a tracer is introduced into the body (inhaled, ingested or injected) and a specialized camera (gamma camera) is used to produce images of organs and structures
positron emission tomography (PET) computed tomography records the positrons (positive charged particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical to produce a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity of body tissues to determine the presence of disease
radiography technique in which x-rays are passed through the body or area and captured on a film to generate an image, also called an x-ray
single photon emission computed tomography radiological technique that integrates computed tomography and a radioactive material (tracer) injected into the bloodstream to visualize blood flow to tissues and organs
ultrasonography high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) are directed at soft tissue and reflected as echoes to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure
biopsy removal of a representative tissue sample from a body site for a microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis
excisional biopsy biopsy in which the entire lesion is removed
incisional biopsy biopsy in which only a small sample of the lesion is removed
Created by: arehberg