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Industrialization and Reform

Henry David Thoreau Refused to pay taxes because he did not want to support a government that allowed slavery and fought a war with Mexico.
"Civil Disobedience" Essay written by Henry David Thoreau. He didn't want people to break the law, but encouraged them to challenge the law thought unjust by refusing to obey them. Martin Luther King Jr. would follow Thoreau's example
Rapid Industrialization factors o Plentiful natural resources o Improved transportation o Growing population o New inventions o Investment capital
Urbanization Factors o Migration of workers to manufacturing centers o Immigration o Economic opportunities in cities
Frederick Douglass leading African American abolitionist; accomplished orator and writer
Benefits of Free Enterprise • Specialization • Foreign investment saw opportunity for profit/growth • Constitutional protections for private property ownership • Economic freedoms promoted diverse economy • Laissez-faire policies contributed to rise of industry
Steamboat increased factory production and led to the growth of cities like New Orleans and St. Louis because it could move goods and people faster up and down rivers
Cotton Gin invented by Eli Whitney made cotton-cleaning process more efficient, drove Natives off their land, create larger work force (number of slaves increased) Southern plantations became major producers of cotton that was shipped to norther textile mills.
Interchangeable Parts parts for devices made to be nearly identical so they could fit into any device of same type; allows easy assembly of new devices & efficient repair of existing devices
Mechanical Reaper invented by Cyrus McCormick increased farm productivity
Public Education Reform opening of public schools primarily in the North, as well as private grade schools and colleges by churches and other groups
Temperance organized societies, such as the American Temperance Society worked at trying to stop the consumption of alcohol. Some states passed laws that made it illegal to sell alcohol
Women's Rights well-organized groups that fought for better working conditions for women
Prison Reform pushed for separate jails for women, men, and children; called for the mission of prisons to be about rehabilitation
Care of the disabled building of new hospitals for the mentally ill, deaf, and blind.
Transcendentalism American literary, political, & philosophical movement in early 1800s (Ralph Waldo Emerson & Henry David Thoreau); critics of their contemporary society for unthinking conformity & urged each person to find relation to universe (solitude in nature)
Emily Dickinson prolific American poet; most of her 1,800 poems published after her death; unconventional style
Walt Whitman poet, journalist, essayist; his poetry collection Leaves of Grass was controversial for its subject matter; consider the father of free verse
Nathaniel Hawthorne novelist and writer of the Romantic movement; often wrote on subjects of morality, such as The Scarlet Letter
Edgar Allen Poe author & poet of Romantic movement, best known for tales of mystery & macabre
James Fenimore Cooper prolific Romantic movement novelist, His The Last of the Mohicans is a historical novel taking place during the Seven Years’ War
Herman Melville author of Moby Dick, Romantic movement writer and poet
John James Audobon drew American wildlife; accurate drawings of American birds and his notes made significant contributions to ornithology and natural history
Hudson River School Artists their paintings depict the American landscape and reflect three themes of America in the 19th century: discovery, exploration, and settlement
Battle Hymn of the Republic written at the beginning of the Civil War, used music from the abolitionist song “John Brown’s Body”; became a popular Civil War song of the Union Army and later a well-loved patriotic anthem
Transcontinental Railroad Connected the East and West Coast; previously investors saw West as worthless sage brush, insurmountable mountains & scattered settlers, now open to economic expansion & settlement; immigrants used railroad to migrate west & form new settlements in west
Factory System o Products could be produced faster and cheaper o Hire low-waged workers
Transcendatalism Authors Emily Dickinson Walt Whitman Nathaniel Hawthorne Edgar Allen Poe James Fenimore Cooper Herman Melville Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry David Thoreau
Steamboats prior to the invention of the steamboat, river travel depended on river currents, wind and manpower; steam-powered boats changed river travel and transportation of goods because of the increased efficiency of travel/transport of goods
Canals man-made waterways used for travel/shipping. Erie Canal opened in 1825 contributing to economic growth of U.S.. The Canal lowered cost of shipping goods which facilitated a great westward migration of American settlers west of the Appalachians into the O
Railroad invention of steam engine led to modern railroads & trains; railroad construction grew in mid-1800s; by 1890s U.S. more urban & railroads gave cities food, fuel, building materials, & access to new markets; large quantities of goods over long distances.
Transcontinental Railroad completed in 1869 created a nation-wide transportation network that united the Nation;
Telegraph transmitted electric signals over wires from location to a location that translated it into a message; many telegraph lines followed railroads; enhanced communication abilities, particularly after 1860 during the increased settlement of the west
Ways Goods were Manufactured the introduction of interchangeable parts resulted in mass production which allowed manufacturers to produce standardized products faster and in larger numbers
Ways Goods were Marketed transportation and communication improved, which allowed goods to move faster and over farther distances
Gold in California rush of settlers to California pushed many Natives off their land. Population of CA quickly climbed to the amount required for statehood (60,000 as put forth by the Northwest Ordinance)
Gadsden Purchase Rocky Mountains led to a need for a railroad for train transport from east to west and supporting settlement of the West.
Location of Factories near transportation hubs like canals and railroads, which led to cities growing in proximity
South region with good soil, small population, few cities, and economic activities focused on agriculture
North region with good port areas, a variety of resources, large population, many cities, and a variety of economic activities
Railroads increased communication and trade between the east and west. But it disrupted natural habitats in the west, contributed to air pollution, and necessitated the filling of hollows, blasting tunnels through mountains and building bridges across rivers.
Urbanization created economic centers that provided wealth to the nation and people, but also contributed to pollution and overcrowding
Cheap Labor mainly in the factories in the cities, it resulted in many jobs and caused immigrants to migrate to the cities.
Rapid Industrialization -plentiful natural resources -improved transportation -growing population -new inventions -investment capital
Factors leading to Urbanization -migration of workers to manufacturing centers -immigration -economic opportunities in cities
Laissez-faire the belief that the government should not interfere in the economy other than to protect private property rights and maintain peace.
Four components of free enterprise and economic freedom 1. private property 2. voluntary exchange 3. profit motive 4. supply and demand determines prices
entreprenuership people who risk their capital in organizing and running a business
Benefits of U.S. Free Enterprise System -specialization -foreign investment saw opportunity for profit & growth -constitutional protections for private property -economic freedoms promoted diverse economy able to meet new demands and challenges -laissez-faire policies contributed to the ris
Susan B. Anthony key spokesperson for the 19th century women's suffrage movement
Elizabeth Cady Stanton leader of the 19th century women's suffrage movement. called for the first convention of women's movement in Seneca Falls, NY. Wrote Declaration of Sentiments, which would be approved at Seneca Falls
Seneca Falls Location of the first convention of the women's movement. Declaration of Sentiments was read aloud there.
Lucretia Mott abolitionist, religious reformer and leader in women's rights movement.
Created by: anna.melton
Popular U.S. History sets




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