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8 SS Midterm
Civil War, Reconstruction, Westward Expansion, Industrialization, Progressives
|A law passed to maintain balance of slave & free states to avoid war. Western states added above the 36'30 line would be Union/free states, states below the line would be Confederate/slave slave states.
|Missouri Compromise of 1820
|A law in which Congress admitted CA as a free state (36'30 went through it) & banned the slave trade in Washington DC, but they also made fugitive slave laws stricter & let Utah & New Mexico decide about slavery for themselves through popular sovereignty.
|Compromise of 1850
|Term that means people in a state could vote on whether or not the territory would be free or slave
|A book written by Harriet Beecher Stow to show the evils of slavery
|Uncle Tom's Cabin
|A law that said Kansas and Nebraska were open to popular sovereignty (even though they were above the 36'30 and therefore should have been free states)
|Kansas Nebraska Act of 1854
|Over 200 men died in a fight between pro-slavery and anti-slavery settlers
|Bleeding Kansas (1855)
|A law case in which Judge Roger Taney said 1.Slave living in a territory was not a citizen 2.Blacks were property 3. Congress can't pass a law that takes peoples' property. Southerners relieved to keep slaves above or below 36'30
|Dred Scott vs. Sanford (1859)
|What cause of the Civil War led directly to the secession of the South? (Why did the South secede?)
|The election of President Lincoln. South Carolina seceded first, and then the rest, because they thought Lincoln was an abolitionist who would end slavery (they were right)
|In this speech, President Lincoln said that as of January 1, 1863, all slaves were free men, even those in the South. He wanted to change the course of the war, and to fight for freedom of slaves and the preservation of the Union
|Emancipation Proclamation of 1863
|President Lincoln declared the Gettysburg Battlefield to be a national cemetery, and that the men did not die in vain. He said we must continue to fight for a "new birth of freedom"
|Who wrote lenient plans for Reconstruction, wanted Confederate states to quickly rejoin theUnion; proposed the 10 Percent Plan requiring only a few men to swear an oath of loyalty, and required the13th and 14th amendments be ratified?
|Lincoln-Johnson Plans for Reconstruction
|Who wrote the Reconstruction Act of 1867, which was meant to be harsh & punish the South for starting the War, required states to rewrite their constitutions, ratify the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, and be broken up into 5 military districts?
|Radical Republican in Congress Plans for Reconstruction
|Name of the government office that helped newly freed men and women by providing food, clothing, and shelter to blacks and poor whites
|Freedman's Bureau of 1865
|Granted citizenship to all males born in the US
|Granted voting rights to all male citizens
|Name of unofficial laws in the south that severely limited the rights of freedmen. Blacks could not own weapons, serve on juries, or own property
|White-supremacist organization that terrorized blacks into giving up their right to vote
|Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
|Law case that upheld segregation
|Plessy vs. Ferguson
|Publicly separated blacks and whites
|Limited the voting rights of African Americans by making them pay a ____ ___ to vote, but blacks had no money
|Limited the voting rights of African Americans by making them prove they could read and write, but most could not not. (And if they could read and write they were given a test in a foreign language)
|Limited the voting rights of African Americans by making them prove their father or grandfather could legally vote by Jan. 1, 1867. This was unfair, b/c no Af. Amer. could legally vote before 1870.
|Congress did this to Pres. Johnson because he fired Secretary of State Edwin Stanton without permission plus 15 other charges
|Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
|Neither Samuel Tilden nor Rutherford B. Hayes won enough votes in the electoral college to become president. About 20 votes were in dispute, so a special commission was set up to determine who should get the votes for the presidency.
|Presidential Election of 1876
|Samuel Tilden agreed to let Rutherford B. Hayes have the disputed votes IF Rutherford would agree to remove all federal (Union) troops from the South
|Compromise of 1877
|Rutherford agreed to the Compromise of 1877, became president, and removed federal troops from the South, causing the_________________________.
|End of Reconstruction
|It offered jobs to miners (especially immigrants, developed boom and bust towns, increased settlement out west, and brought California into the Union as a free state
|The Gold Rush (1848)
|This law offered 160 acres of free land to anyone who farmed it for 5 years. The purpose was to increase settlements out west and motivate settlers to cultivate lands for farming
|The Homestead Act of 1862
|This term refers to increased settlements out west, and cultivation of land for farming in the western territories
|1. Offered a fast and easy method of transportation out West 2. Shipping costs were less expensive 3. Goods were mass-produced 4. Jobs were created
|Ways that the growth of railroads led to INDUSTRIALIZATION
|Name for Rockefeller, Morgan, Vanderbilt, and Carnegie
|Captains of Industry
|Name for business men who used ruthless business tactics to destroy competition from small businesses, create monopolies, and "steal money" from consumers by making them pay higher prices
|Nickname for American culture because it is a "blend" of many immigrant customs, traditions, and beliefs
|Factory jobs, tenement housing, ethnic communities, and cheap goods massed produced by industry caused immigrants to settle in the _________.
|Belief that native-born citizens are superior to all immigrants
|Immigrants experienced __________ because of nativism, differences in culture and language, fear of overpopulation, fear immigrants were taking jobs
|When did old immigrants arrive in the US vs. new immigrants?
|1850s-1880s versus 1880s-1920s
|Where did old immigrants come from vs. the new immigrants?
|Northern and Western Europe such as Britain & Ireland & China vs. Southern and Eastern Europe (Poland, Russia, Greece)
|What was Teddy Roosevelt's greatest legacy and crowning achievement?
|True/False: Teddy Roosevelt believed it was the government's responsibility to protect nature and the environment for the public good, so as part of the Square Deal he protected millions of acres of land and created national parks/forests
|True/False: Teddy Roosevelt believed that safety for all Americans was important
|Act requiring all packages to contain ingredients and expiration dates by Teddy Roosevelt's Square Deal
|Pure Food and Drug Act
|Roosevelt passed this act as a result of Upton Sinclair's book The Jungle to ensure that all meat was processed in a clean facility
|Meat Inspection Act
|True/False: Teddy Roosevelt believed bad trusts should be destroyed, and good ones could be left alone
|Name two trusts Roosevelt thought were "bad"
|JP Morgan's finance companies and Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company
|A law passed by Teddy Roosevelt to allow for more competition in business
|Sherman Anti-Trust Act
|Something that was created AFTER THE TIME PERIOD, such as a textbook, encyclopedia, biography
|Something that was created DURING the TIME PERIOD, such as a newspaper, diary, autobiography, photograph
|Used in factories for industrialization such as Henry Ford's mass production of cars by moving them along a conveyor belt and having each worker assemble a different part
|The economic system of the US, in which individuals run business (not the government), using the theory of supply and demand to decide prices, production, and distribution of goods and services
|Over-crowded one-room apartments in cities that housed immigrants during the late 19th and early 20th centuries