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rubenstein ch. 10


Before the invention of agriculture, how did people provide for themselves? by hunting and gathering
Name 2 areas where hunter and gatherers still live. Arctic, interior of Africa and interior of Australia
What is the deliberate modification of Earth's surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain called? agriculture
What type of activity takes place on some of the most isolated places on earth? hunting and gathering
According to Carl Sauer what was the first type of plant cultivation? vegetative planting ( cuttings and root division)
What is the reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds that results from sexual fertilization called? seed agriculture
Agriculture probably started in multiple hearths. True or False True
Where did vegetative planting most likely begin? Southeast Asia
Name 2 vegetative planting hearths. Southeast Asia and West Africa
Where are 3 seed agriculture hearths located? Western India, Northern China, Ethiopia
Where in the world did people first incorporate animal domestication with seed Agriculture? Southwest Asia
What type of agriculture consists of producing only enough food for your family to consume? Subsistence
What is the purpose of commercial farming? to sell crops for money
What percent of people in MDC's are directly involved in farming? less than 10%
What electronic tools are used in precision agriculture? GPS, satellite imagery, and yield monitors
Most commercial fasrms in the United States are family owned. True or False? True
What is the system of commercial farming and other MDCs called? Agribusiness
The mapping of agriculture regions closely relates to what other phenomena? climate
What are 2 hallmarks of slash and burn agriculture? shifting cultivation, fields only used a couple of years, fields are slashed and then burned
What does GMO stand for? genetically modified organisms
What is the seasonal practice of moving livestock between mountains and lowlands called? transhumence
For pastoral nomads, what determines the amount of the power and prestige? the size of their herd
What factors contribute to animal selection for pastoral nomads? local cultural and physical characteristics
What is the practice of growing crops of ridgetops called? ridge tillage
What three areas is intensive agriculture practiced the most? East, South and Southeast Asia
In what type of agriculture practice is there virtually no land wasted? intensive subsistence farming
What is the term of cultivation of 2 crops per year? double cropping
In Europe, what method did farmers emply to maintain soil fertility? crop rotation
What agricultural practice was finally developed in the 18th century in northwestern Europe? four field crop rotation system
What type of agriculture exists in Southern Europe, North Africa, California, Central Chile and Southwestern South Africa? Mediterranean
Name 3 crops commonly associated with Mediterranean agriculture. olives, grapes, fruits vegetables
What type of farming produces the products demanded by consumers in MDC's? truck farming / commercial gardening
What is the ring surrounding the city from which milk can be supplied without spiling called? milkshed
What 2 crops are grown the most in mixed crop and livestock agriculture regions? corn adn soybeans
What are the primary spring wheat belt in the United States? Dakotas and Montana
What type of farming has spread to New England which consists of growing expensive vegetables and nursery plants? Specialty farming
Who created a theory to explain how population growth influences the distribution of types of susistence farming? Ester Boserut
Due to overgrazing, what are semiarid lands subject to? desertification
What was the rapid invention and diffusion of more productive agriculure practices in the 1960's and 70's called? Green Revolution
What continent benefitted the least from the Green Revolution? Africa
What type of agriculture occurs in LDCs that is controlled by MDC corporation? export crops
Name 3 plantation agricultural products. cotton, coffee, sugarcane
What 2 factors influence the choice of crops for commercial farmers? value of yield and cost of transporting it
According to Von Thumen, how is land used in the ring closest to the market? perishable products like dairy and horticulture
In general why do commercial farmers suffer low incomes? They produce more food than is demanded by MDC's.
Name 2 policies the US gov't uses to discourage farmers from producing too much food. They encourage planting fallow crops. and they pay farmers when prices are low.
What are 2 basic principles of sustainable agriculture? limited use of chemicals and integration of crops and livestock.
According to the Von Thumen model, how is the third ring used? crop rotation
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