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Identured servants were men and women who signed a contract (also known as an indenture or a covenant) by which they agreed to work for a certain number of years in exchange for transportation to Virginia and, once they arrived, food, clothing, and shelter
trade and navigation acts several acts of Parliament between 1651 and 1847 designed primarily to expand British trade and limit trade by British colonies with countries that were rivals of Great Britain.
mayflower compact signed by 41 English colonists on the ship Mayflower on November 11, 1620, was the first written framework of government established in what is now the United States.
Roger williams an English Puritan theologian who was an early proponent of religious freedom and the separation of church and state.
Great puritan migration refers to the migration in this period of English settlers, primarily Puritans to Massachusetts and the warm islands of the West Indies, especially the sugar rich island of Barbados, 1630–40.
new england confederation a short-lived military alliance of the English colonies of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven.
jonathan edwards a revivalist preacher, philosopher, and Congregationalist Protestant theologian
halfway covenant a form of partial church membership created by New England in 1662. It was promoted in particular by the Reverend Solomon Stoddard,
city on the hill Massachusetts Bay colonists that their new community would be "as a city upon a hill", watched by the world — which became the ideal the New England colonists placed upon their hilly capital city, Boston.
william penn William Penn was an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early Quaker and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania,
proprietary colony a type of British colony mostly in North America and the Caribbean in the 17th century. In the British Empire, all land belonged to the king, and it was his prerogative to divide.
royal colony a royal colony was ruled directly by the king. The king, or his officials, appointed the colony's governor and had the right to approve (or disapprove) its laws.
charter colony one of the three classes of colonial government established in the 17th century English colonies in North America, the other classes being proprietary colony and royal colony. The colonies of Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Massachusetts Bay were charter c
peter zenger trial Zenger was charged with libel. James Alexander was Zenger's first counsel, but the court found him in contempt and removed him from the case. After more than eight months in prison, Zenger went to trial, defended by the Philadelphia lawyer Andrew Hamilton
king philip war sometimes called the First Indian War, Metacom's War, Metacomet's War, or Metacom's Rebellion, was an armed conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day New England
george whitefield an English Anglican cleric who helped spread the Great Awakening in Britain and, especially, in the American colonies.
great awakening refer to several periods of religious revival in American religious history
thomas hobbes was an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy
mercantilism the economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances,
bacon's rebellion an armed rebellion in 1676 by Virginia settlers led by Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William Berkeley.
harvard college ​originally Harvard Colledge, and around which Harvard University eventually grew—​was founded 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States.
middle passage the sea journey undertaken by slave ships from West Africa to the West Indies.
phyllis wheatley Phillis Wheatley was the first published African-American female poet. Born in West Africa, she was sold into slavery at the age of seven and transported to North America.
puritans a member of a group of English Protestants of the late 16th and 17th centuries who regarded the Reformation of the Church of England under Elizabeth as incomplete and sought to simplify and regulate forms of worship.
pilgrims/separatist a person who journeys to a sacred place for religious reasons.
house of burgesses the lower house of the colonial Virginia legislature.
anne hutchinsom was a Puritan spiritual adviser, mother of 15, and an important participant in the Antinomian Controversy that shook the infant Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638.
william bradford English Separatist leader who grew up in Yorkshire, and later moved to Leiden, Holland, and helped found the Plymouth Colony. He was a signatory to the Mayflower Compact while aboard the Mayflower in 1620.
french and indian war the French and Indian War was the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War. The war was fought between the colonies of British America and New France, with both sides supported by military
john locke an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
salem witch trial The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693
iroquois confederacy as the Haudenosaunee /ˈhoʊdənɵˈʃoʊni/, are a historically powerful and important northeast Native American confederacy.
headright system A headright is a legal grant of land to settlers.
solutary neglect an American history term that refers to the unofficial, long-term seventeenth- and eighteenth-century British Crown policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws meant to keep American colonies obedient to England.
albany plan of union a plan to create a unified government for the Thirteen Colonies, suggested by Benjamin Franklin, then a senior leader (age 45) and a delegate from Pennsylvania, at the Albany Congress in July 10, 1754 in Albany, New York.
james oglethorpe a British general, Member of Parliament, philanthropist, and founder of the colony of Georgia
proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War, which forbade all settlement past a line drawn along the Appalachian Mou
thomas paine an English-American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary
common sense Common Sense challenged the authority of the British government and the royal monarchy. The plain language that Paine used spoke to the common people of America and was the first work to openly ask for independence from Great Britain.
stamp act congress First Congress of the American Colonies was a meeting held between October 7 and 25, 1765 in New York City, consisting of representatives from some of the British colonies in North America; it was the first gathering of elected representatives from severa
olive branch was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 5, 1775, in a final attempt to avoid a full-on war between the Thirteen Colonies, that the Congress represented, and Great Britain. The petition affirmed American loyalty to Great Britain and entreate
ponriac's rebellion Pontiac's Conspiracy, or Pontiac's Rebellion was a war that was launched in 1763 by a loose confederation of elements of Native American tribes primarily from the Great Lakes region
quartering act a name given to a minimum of two Acts of British Parliament in the local governments of the American colonies to provide the British soldiers with any needed accommodations or housing.
boston tea party (initially referred to by John Adams as "the Destruction of the Tea in Boston") was a political protest by the Sons of Liberty in Boston, on December 16, 1773.
coercive/intolerable act were the American Patriots' term for a series of punitive laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 after the Boston Tea party. They were meant to punish the Massachusetts colonists for their defiance in throwing a large tea shipment into Boston harb
tea act was the final straw in a series of unpopular policies and taxes imposed by Britain on her American colonies. The policy ignited a “powder keg” of opposition and resentment among American colonists and was the catalyst of the Boston Tea Party.
sons of liberty The Sons of Liberty was an organization of American colonists that was created in the Thirteen American Colonies. The secret society was formed to protect the rights of the colonists and to fight taxation by the British government.
virtual representation was the British response to the First Continental Congress in the American colonies. The Congress asked for representation in Parliament in the Suffolk Resolves, also known as the first olive branch petition. Parliament claimed that their members had the
boston massacre was a street fight that occurred on March 5, 1770, between a "patriot" mob, throwing snowballs, stones, and sticks, and a squad of British soldiers. Several colonists were killed and this led to a campaign by speech-writers to rouse the ire of the citize
no taxation without representation generally attributed to James Otis about 1761, that reflected the resentment of American colonists at being taxed by a British Parliament to which they elected no representatives and became an anti-British slogan before the American Revolution; in full, “
stamp act an act of the British Parliament in 1756 that exacted revenue from the American colonies by imposing a stamp duty on newspapers and legal and commercial documents. Colonial opposition led to the act's repeal in 1766 and helped encourage the revolutionary
townshend acts The Townshend Acts were a series of acts passed, beginning in 1767, by the Parliament of Great Britain relating to the British colonies in North America. The acts are named after Charles Townshend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, who proposed the program
non importation agreement In reaction to the Stamp Act (1765) and the Townshend Acts (1767), colonial nonimportation associations were organized by Sons of Liberty and Whig merchants to boycott English goods.
first continential congress The First Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from twelve of the thirteen colonies that met on September 5 to October 26, 1774 at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, early in the American Revolution.
gaspee affair In June of 1772, a dramatic event was to demonstrate the severity of the crisis. A Lieutenant William Duddington, of Her Majesty's Ship Gaspee, was charged with patrolling the waters of Narragansett Bay, off Rhode Island.
sugar act of 1764 . On April 5, 1764, Parliament passed a modified version of the Sugar and Molasses Act (1733), which was about to expire. Under the Molasses Act colonial merchants had been required to pay a tax of six pence per gallon on the importation of foreign molass
declaration of independence The Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Continental Congress meeting at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as thirtee
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