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Chapter 8 Test

Study Guide for Hibner's Chapter 8 Test

Whose publication of a pamphlet increased interest in exploring western Virginia? Abraham Wood and Edward Bland
Whose record of his exploration was criticized for being hear-say or rumors? John Lederer
Whose expedition was to establish trade directly with the Cherokee? James Needham and Gabriel Arthur
What did Alexander Spotswood create upon his return from western Virginia? Knights of the Golden Horseshoe
Which nations had a land claim on western Virginia? England and France
From which direction did the English arrive in western Virginia? From the east
From which direction did the French arrive in western Virginia? From the north
What did the French and English dispute over western Virginia eventually lead to? War (French and Indian War)
What method did the English use to claim land? Blazing trees (carving names or initials)
What method did the French use to claim land? Burying lead plates
What was the main issue with these European land claims? Land was not theirs to claim, it belonged to the Native Americans
What attracted early settlers to western Virginia in 1730? Reports of untold beauty, English encouragement, "Breathing room", changes to Virginia land policies in 1730
Who is believed to be the first permanent European settler in western Virginia? Morgan Morgan
What is an indentured servant? Someone who agrees to work for someone else in exchange for passage to North America
What two nationalities made up the majority of early settlers in western Virginia? German and Scots-Irish
Why did the Germans settlers leave Europe? War and religious persecution
Why did the Scots-Irish settlers leave Europe? Discrimination (couldn't hold political office or practice own religion)
In what year did the first Africans enter western Virginia? 1750
What were the three methods used by early settlers to claim land? Tomahawk rights (carve name in tree), cabin rights (build on the land), corn rights (plant crops on land)
What was the most prominent, or most important, part of the cabin of early settlers? The fireplace
What was the clothing like of early western Virginia settlers? What was its main purpose? Clothing was made of animal skin and practical in purpose
What role did recreation play in the lives of early settlers? Not very important because survival was main concern. As time passed, recreation would be used a way of escaping the day to day focus on survival
What was the health/hygiene like of early settlers? Poor health and hygiene would many suffered from various ailments and diseases
Created by: bhibner