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Units 1-4 Vocabulary

historian a person who studies or writes about history
perspective a way of thinking about and understanding something
archaeologists Scientists that study past human life and activities by studying the bones, tools, etc., of ancient people
norms standards of proper or acceptable behavior
historical thinking the skill of examining history for yourself; to consult a lot of different sources and compare the multiple points of view of the people who were there at the time
primary source document or physical object which was written or created during the time period being studied
secondary source A document that interprets and analyzes primary sources – not written at the time of the event
historical narrative the practice of writing history in a story-based form
artifacts a simple object (such as a tool or weapon) that was made by people in the past
historical investigation Using texts, artifacts and documents to explore events of the past
values strongly held beliefs about what is valuable, important, or acceptable
Cities a center of population, commerce, and culture
Government a system of rule by which a city, state, or nation is governed
Religion a set of beliefs in and worship of God or gods
Social Structure a specific, stable arrangement of institutions whereby people in a society interact and live together
Job Specialization to be involved in some special line of work or study; can include only a few steps in the total production of a good or service
Public Works a broad category of projects, financed and built by the government, for recreation, employment, health, etc.
Writing to express or communicate using symbols such as an alphabet, other pictorial marks, etc.
Art a category of items such as paintings, sculptures, music, etc.
Geography a science that deals with the description, distribution, and interaction of the physical, biological, and cultural features of the earth's surface
History a branch of knowledge that records and explains past events
Greek Civilization ancient civilization that creates the foundation for the culture and civilization of the modern western world – lasting from around 3000 BC to the beginning of foreign rule in Greece starting in 146 BC
Enduring Impact a permanent and lasting accomplishment or idea that continues to affect later generations
historical legacy something accomplished or created that has an impact on future generations
Representative Democracy form of government where citizens have the power to elect representatives to make decisions for them
Direct Democracy a type of government where citizens have the power to participate directly in government
Modern Democratic Governments all present day governments that are influenced by Greek democratic ideas
Monarchy a type of government that is run by a king or queen with absolute power and is based on heredity
Theocracy a type of government that is run by religion
astrolabe a device that used the position of the stars, sun and moon to tell your location, the time of day and the date
ore smelting the process that uses heat to turn ore into iron
pulley block a simple machine that decreases the amount of work needed to lift an object
wood screw used to transfer water from a low elevation to a high elevation
literature written works, especially those of lasting merit
Christianity a religion with the belief in one God and Jesus Christ as the son of God who died on a cross and rose from the dead for sins of people
Republic a country that is governed by elected representatives
Tripartite Government Government with three branches that share power
Checks and Balances The ability of one branch of a government to keep another branch from becoming too powerful
Senate The powerful law making branch of Roman government
Consuls Two leaders of the Roman Senate, elected by the assembly and have the ability to veto
Assembly All citizens gather to vote on leaders and laws
Constitution A set of rules that determine how a government functions
Germanic Invasions The barbarian groups known as the Germanic groups invaded the weak Roman Empire
Feudalism A government based on the exchange of goods and services for protection
Manorial system The economic system of a feudal government where all goods and materials are made within the manor – no trade (workers pay lord of the manor with labor, goods or coins)
Land- based economy An economy where power is based on the amount of land you own or control (land=power)
Hierarchy Categorization of a group of people according to ability or status
Peasants Lower class of medieval society who works the farmland in return for protection
Lords Person with authority and power over others – gave protection to lower class in exchange for goods
Vassals Phrase given to any person or group who gets protection in exchange for loyalty and service
Created by: Mrs.Love



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