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APUSH 18-22

Chapter 18-22 AP American History

Wilmot Proviso A bill introduced after the Mexican War that stated no slavery should exist in territory gained from Mexico.
Popular Sovereignty Allowed the residents of the territory/area to decide whether slavery was allowed to exist or not.
Compromise of 1850--North: -California admitted as a free state--tipped balance of free/slave -the territory that was disputed by Texas and New Mexico was surrendered to New Mexico -abolition of the slave trade (but not slavery) in the District of Columbia
Compromise of 1850--South: -Texas: $10 million from the federal government as compensation--fugitive-slave law than the one of 1793 -remainder of the Mexican Cession area formed into the territories of New Mexico and Utah, w/o slavery restriction
Fugitive Slave Law Slave owner can recapture their runaway slaves. Fed. Gov. responsible for tracking down & apprehending fugitive slaves in the North, and sending them back to the South. Powerful exercise of federal authority within the US
Kansas-Nebraska Act Stephen Douglas proposed: Territory of Nebraska would be sliced into two territories: Kansas and Nebraska...pop. sov. decide issue of slavery.
Bleeding Kansas Lecompton Constitution → people could vote “with slavery” or “with no slavery” but if they voted against slavery, the Lecompton Constitution would still protect the owners of slaves already in Kansas
Effect of Bleeding Kansas Pushed N. and S. apart on issue of slavery even more than they already were. Showed popular sovereignty wouldn’t work.
Birth of the Republican Party created after the Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed; Midwest
Dred Scott Case Supreme Court twisted the simple legal case into complex political issue. Rule that Dred Scott was a black slave and not a citizen, therefore could not sue in federal court.
Border States Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland
Emancipation Proclamation changed status of war to slavery; Where he could free them he didn't, where he couldn't free them, he did
Battle of Antietam 1st battle in Civil War to take place on Northern soil; Found copy of Lee’s battle plans-succeeded in halting Lee; 1 of bloodiest days in War
13th Amendment abolished slavery
14th Amendment Reconstruction amendment; citizenship rights and equal protection of laws
15th Amendment Prohibits fed. and state gov. from denying a citizen the right to vote based on their race, color, previous servitude.
Free Soilers organized by anti-slavery men in the north, democrats who were resentful at Polk's actions; against slavery in the new territories; internal improvements.
Fort Sumter Issue of divided union came to head over forts in S; Carolinas opened fire on fort, fort lost
Strengths of North Abundance of factories to produce supplies. Contained ¾ of nations wealth. Large population/immigrants: lots of manpower..22 million Controlled seas and railroads
Strengths of South Great commanders Bred to fight, better shooters morale/reason to fight. defensive war, only needed a draw
Weaknesses of North No reason to fight. less prepared for military life weak commanders Lincoln's use of trial and error to find commander...too many commanders
Weaknesses of South only 9 million people shortage of supplies lack of economy and manufacturing
Chronology of Battles Bull Run 1, Bull Run 2, Shiloh, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Vicksburg, Gettysburg, March to the Sea, Appomattox
Importance of Antietam Union victory allowed Lincoln to give his Emancipation Proclamation
Significance of Battle of Gettysburg turning point of war; Lee’s plan to invade N. and end war failed. Location played in favor of N; knew the area, had the use of the “fishhook” hills to surround them and provide protection against Lee.
Postwar South Economy devastated. Many white southerners still believed secession was right. S. thought reconstruction was worse than war; resented upending of their social and radical system. Republicans failed to improve the S.
Freedmen’s Bureau: Welfare agency after Civil War; Oliver O. Howard; Wanted to provide clothes, food, medical care, and education; Taught 200,000 blacks how to read; White S. resented the Bureau; Johnson tried to kill it.
10% Plan Lincoln's reconstruction plan. S. state reintegrated into the Union if 10% of its voters in the 1860 election pledged an oath of allegiance to the US and emancipation.
Wade Davis Bill required 50% state’s voters take the oath of allegiance and demanded stronger safeguards for emancipation than Lincoln’s
Congressional Republicans Republicans alarmed to realize restored S. would be stronger than ever in nat. politics. Feared N and S. Dem. would join and take over Congress w/ Black Codes
Black Codes: law that defined and limited the rights of former slaves after the Civil War. Aimed to ensure a stable labor force. Miss.=harshest, GA=most lenient
Union League network of political clubs that educated members in their civic duties and campaigned for Rep. candidates.
Radical Reconstruction Black men began to hold political offices. S. whites hated seeing their former slaves ranking above them. Labelled scalawags and carpetbaggers.
KKK: Blacks who refused were punished or killed. Scared blacks into not voting, not seeking jobs, etc; often resorted to violence.
Reconstruction Era Amendments 13, 14, 15
Vicksburg Conf. fortress on Miss. whose fall to Grant cut the South in 2
Penn. battle that ended Lee's hope of achieving victory through invasion of North Gettysburg
Copperheads N. Dem. who openly opposed the Civil war and sympathized w/ south.
Appomattox Court House VA site where Lee surrendered to Grant in April 1865.
McClellan Commander of army of Potomac; perfectionist/overcautious; Pen. campaign
Total War Plan: Suffocate S. by blockading coast, liberate slaves and economic foundations of S.; capture richmond
A major effect of the 1st Battle of Bull Run was to: Increase the South's already dangerous overconfidence.
The primary weakness of General George McClellan as a military commander was his: excessive caution and reluctance to use his troops.
After the failed Peninsula campaign, Lincoln and the Union turned to a: new strategy based on total war against the Confederacy.
The Union blockade of Confederate ports was: initially leaky but eventually effective.
Antietam was one of the crucial battles of the war because: it prevented British and French recognition of the Confederacy.
Officially, the Emancipation Proclamation freed only slaves: under control of the rebellious Conf. States
The political effects of the Emancipation Proclamation were to: strengthen the North's moral cause but weaken the Lincoln administration in the Border States and parts of the North.
Thousands of black soldiers in the Union Army: added a powerful weapon to the antislavery dimension of the Union cause.
Lee's primary goal in invading the North in the summer of 1863 was to: strengthen the N. peace movement and encourage foreign intervention in the war.
Grant's capture of Vicksburg was especially important because it: quelled N. peace agitation and cut off the Conf. trade route across the Mississippi.
Lincoln dealt with the leading Copperhead, Clement Vallandigham, by: convicting him of treason and then shipping him to the South.
Johnson, Lincoln's VP running mate in 1864, was a: War Democrat
Lincoln's election victory in 1864 was sealed by Union military successes at: Mobile, Atlanta, and the Shenandoah Valley
Sherman's March to Sea was notable for its: brutal use of total war tactics of destruction.
As Dem. Party nominee in 1864, McClellan: repudiated the Copperhead platform that called for a negotiated settlement w/ the Confederacy.
McClellan's unsuccessful attempt to end war quickly by a back-door conquest of Richmond: Peninsula Campaign
Amendment that permanently ended slavery throughout US: 13
Conf. fortress on Miss. whose fall to Grant in 1863 cut the South in 2: Vicksburg
Penn. battle that ended Lee's last hopes of achieving victory through invasion of the N. Gettysburg
N. Dem. who opposed Civil War and sympathized w/ S. Copperheads
Temp. 1864 coalition of Rep. and War Dem. that backed Lincoln's re-election: Union Party
Site where Lincoln was assassinated: Ford's Theater
VA site where Lee surrendered to Grant in April 1865: Appomattox Court House
Daring S. commander killed at Battle of Chancellorsville: Stonewall
S. officer whose failed charge at Gettysburg marked the "high water mark of the Conf" George Pickett
Union commander who first made his mark w/ victories in the West Ulysses S. Grant
Ruthless N. general who waged a march through GA: William T. Sherman
Sec. of Trea. who wanted to replace Lincoln as president in 1864: Salmon P. Chase
Lincoln's plan for the besieged fed. forces in Fort Sumter: send supplies for existing soldiers, no reinforcements
Firing on Ft. Sumter had effect of: arousing N. support for a war to put down the S. rebellion
States that joined the Conf. after Lincoln's call for troops in 1861: VA, Arkansas, Tenn., NC
Butter Region: areas of S. Ohio, Indiana, and IL that opposed antislavery war.
Indian Territory, most of 5 Civilized Tribes: supported the Conf. and sent warriors to fight for it.
Response to Civil War in Europe: support for S. among upper classes; for N. in working classes.
S. weapon of King Cotton failed to draw Britain into the war for Conf. because: the British found cotton from previous stockpiles and Egypt and India.
US minister in London warned that US would declare war against Britain if: the British gov. delivered the Laird Rams it had built for Conf.
Fed. military installation in Charleston Harbor which the first shots of war fired: Sumter
British ship which 2 Conf. forcibly removed by US Navy Alabama
Ironclad warships kept out of hands of Conf. by protests to British Gov. Laird Rams
paper currency issued by wartime Union greenbacks
Fin. institution set up by wartime fed. gov. to sell war bonds and issue stable paper currency Nat. Banks
Fed. law of 1862 that offered free land in the W. to pioneers willing to settle on it Homestead
French dictator who ignored Monroe Doctrine Napoleon III
American envoy who helped keep Britain neutral during Civil War Charles Adams
Robert E. Lee's military assisstant Thomas Jackson
Leader whose conflict w/ states' rights advocates and personaltiy harmed ability to direct his nations warfare. Jefferson Davis
Transformed nursing into profession Clara Barton
Congressional elections of 1866 resulted in a: decisive defeat for Johnson
Mod. Republicans generally: favored states' rights and opposed fed. involvement
Reconstruction Act of 1867 required: give blacks the vote as a condition of readmission to the Union.
Public accepted purchase of Alaska because it: grateful to Russia as the only power friendly to the Union.
2 largest African American denominations: Baptist, Methodist
Supreme Court ruling that military tribunals could not try civilians when the civil courts were open: Exparte Milligan
term for white S. who cooperated w/ Rep. reconstruction scalawags
t. for N. who came to S. during Reconstruction and took part in Rep. state gov. Carpetbaggers
Leader of Senate Rep. radicals during reconstruction: Charles Sumner
Leader of Rad. Rep. in House of Reps. Thaddeus Stevens
White S. against radical reconstruction Andrew Johnson
Created by: lbielinski