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9th Grade SS


Justinian's Code Legal reforms; see corpus "juris civilis" or "Body of Civil Law."
Algebra An Arabic word for a system for computation using letters or other symbols to represent numbers, with rules for manipulating these symbols.
Cyrillic alphabet An alphabet derived from the Greek alphabet and used for writing Slavic languages; adopted by early Russia.
Astrolabe An Arabic medieval instrument invented to measure and predict the positions of the sun and major stars.
Eastern Roman Empire Also known as the Byzantine Empire; used mostly Greek language and culture; capital-Constantinople (new Rome).
Constantinople Capital city of the Byzantine Empire; located along the Bosporus strait.
Bosporus A strategic waterway linking the Black Sea with the Aegean Sea; passed by Constantinople.
Hagia Sophia The Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom in Constantinople, built by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian.
mosaic An art form made of many small titles, utilized in ancient Greece and perfected during the Byzant
Justinian I Emperor of the Byzantine Empire 527-565.
Constantine I Emperor of the Romans 272-337; Constantinople in the Byzantine Empire is based on his name.
feudalism A political system in which nobles are granted use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land.
nobles Wealthy landowners who pledged their loyalty to the king.
lord In feudal Europe, a person who controlled land and could therefore grant estates to vassals.
knights In medieval Europe, an armored warrior who sometimes fought on horseback.
peasants Vast majority of people during Europe's medieval period; often engaged in farming.
serfs A medieval peasant legally bound to live on a lord's estate; tied to the land.
chivalry A code of behavior for knights in medieval Europe, stressing ideals such as courage, loyalty, and devotion.
scribe A professional record keeper who could read and write.
three field system A system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farmland was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, spring crop, and left unplanted (fallow).
manorialism The economic system of the middle ages; based on self-sufficiency.
self-sufficient Being able to provide for your own needs without help from others; "a self-sufficing economic unit"
plague (Black Death) A deadly disease that spread across Asia and Europe in the mid-14th century, killing millions of people; also know as the Black Death.
Cathedrals Churches built in the Romanesque or Gothic style. They showed religious spirit during Medieval Times.
Crusades 1096 Christian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem and aid they Byzantines; 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade.
Holy Land The region of present-day Israel; includes the city of Jerusalem, which is a holy city to Christianity, Islam, and Judaism.
Charlemagne 768-843; reunited Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire.
Pope Urban II 1095; calls for the first crusade to recapture Jerusalem
Dante An Italian poet famous for writing the Divine Comedy that describes a journey through hell and purgatory and paradise guided by Virgil and his idealized Beatrice (1265-1321).
Created by: pieronek



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