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Depression and WWII

The Great Depression and World War II

This is the nickname given for the date of October 29th, 1929, when the U.S. stock market suffered a significant crash. Black Tuesday
Some 20 percent of all banks closed, and wiped out 10 million savings accounts during the Great Depression. Bank failures
He promised the American people prosperity and attempted to fight the onset of the Great Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community and promoting volunteerism. Herbert Hoover
The president who expanded the size of the federal government, altered its scope of operations,and greatly enlarged presidential powers with his New Deal. Franklin D. Roosevelt or FDR
Roosevelt's wife and the most active first lady in history--participated in advising and at times running New Deal programs and the presidency when FDR struggled with polio. Eleanor Roosevelt
Roosevelt's plan for getting out of the depression. (relief, recovery, and reform) New Deal
The university professors who gave advice on economic matters to FDR during the Great Depression Brain Trust
Banks were closed on March 6th, 1933 to restore public confidence--reopened after FDR had a chance to close banks that were failing. Bank holiday
The honey-moon period of FDR's presidency (or for that matter any presidency) in which FDR pushed through Congress many of his New Deal programs. Today this term refers to the early months in which a President tries to accomplish his political goals. First Hundred Days
The first woman to ever serve in a president's cabinet--U.S. Secretary of Labor in FDR's cabinet. Frances Perkin
FDR kept his campaign promise and raised needed tax money by having Congress pass the Beer-Wine Revenge Act, which legalized the sale of beer and wine. The ratification of the Twenty-First Amendment repealed the Eighteenth Amendment. Repeal of Probition
FDR's radio speeches assuring his listeners that the banks which reopened after the bank holiday were safe. Fireside chats
Guaranteed individual bank deposits. Part of FDR's New Deal to promote reform of the banking system and provide assurances to the American people that their money was safe. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Directed by Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes, allotted money to state and local governments for building roads, bridges, dams, and other public works. New Deal program Public Works Administration
Employed young men between ages 18-25 on projects on federal lands and paid their families small monthly sums. Planted trees, renovated national parks, drained swamps, and worked on conservation projects. First New Deal program Civilian Conservation Corps
Hired thousands of people in one of the nation's poorest regions, the Tennessee Valley, to build dams, operate electric power plants, control flooding and erosion, and manufacture fertilizer. Tennessee Valley Authority
New Deal program created to regulate the stock market and to place strict limits on the kind of speculative practices that had led to the Wall Street crash in 1929. Still around today. Securities and Exchange Commission
FDR launched a new set of programs in 1935, which concentrated on the other two R's; relief and reform. This was not his First New deal but his . . . Second New Deal
Spent billions of dollars between 1935 and 1940 to provide people with jobs. Built schools, bridges (including the Golden Gate Bridge), parks, and libraries during the Great Depression. 2nd New Deal program! Works Progress Administration
Created a Federal insurance program based upon the automatic collection of payments from employees to employers throughout people's working careers. Targeted to primarily supply the elderly with a pension plan when they retired. The Social Security Act
Retired doctor known for his pension proposal the "Townsend Plan" during the Great Depression which later influenced FDR to establish the Social Security system. Francis Townsend
Senator from Louisiana known for his program "Share the Wealth", proposing new wealth distribution through net access tax. Planned to run for president in 1936 but was assassinated in 1935. Huey Long
Federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions from 1935 through 1955. Congress of Industrial Organizations
Act in 1938 that introduced the forty-hour work week, established minimum wage, guaranteed time-and-a-half for overtime and prohibited the employment of minors in oppressive child labor. The basis for our modern working system today! Fair Labor Standards Act
Established in 1938 with the Fair Labor Standards act, ensuring that workers would be paid a minimum of $.25 per hour-- A quarter an hour was the first Federal _______________. Minimum Wage
Parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico and Texas that saw large amounts of dry top soil blow away crops in massive dust storms. Left farmers with no money and deeply in debt as they could not produce crops during the worst drought in history. Dust Bowl
Migrant Agricultural workers who were forced to leave Oklahoma during the depression of the 1930s to find work in California. Okies
Story that follows the fortunes of a poor family named the Joads as they travel from the Dust Bowl region to California during the Great Depression. John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath
Foreign policy presented by Roosevelt that ensured non-intervention and non-interference in Latin America in the 1930s. Reinforced the idea that the US would be a "good neighbor" in hope to create new economic opportunities and reciprocal trade agreements Good Neighbor Policy
Japan takes this area of China in their first act of aggression during the 1930s. Manchuria
An Italian political party rooted in Nationalism, created by Benito Mussolini. Totalitarian philosophy of government that glorifies the nation and and assigns the state control over every aspect of national life. Fascist Party
Prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 to 1943 when he was finally overthrown during WW II. Established a fascist regime with strict censorship and propaganda. Axis ally of Hitler and killed by his own people. Benito Mussolini
Political party formed in Germany in 1919 and brought to power by Hitler in 1933. Also referred to as the National Socialist Party. Nazi Party
Radical German nationalist during WWI. Became dictator and Fuehrer of Germany in 1933 and led Europe into WWII. Adolf Hitler
The countries that fought against the Allies during WWII, including Germany, Italy, Japan, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Yugoslavia. Axis Powers
Military revolt and civil war in Spain from 1936-1939 in which nationalists led by General Franco succeeded in overthrowing the government with Nazi support from Hitler and Germany Spanish Civil War
Fascist dictator of Spain who led the Nationalists to victory in the Spanish Civil War--silent ally to the Nazi's and Hitler. Francisco Franco
Region between Germany and France, demilitarized by the Treaty of Versailles. Occupied and re-militarized by Hitler...rich in resources such as coal and served as a buffer for Hitler's Germany. Rhineland
The area of the Czech republic (with large populations of German people) that Hitler seized in violation of the League of Nations...after taking this area, he promised not to take any more territory and signed the Munich Pact. Sudetenland
Term for British/French policy of attempting to prevent war by granting German demands as Hitler took control of territory. Associated primarily with the leadership of British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. Lead to the signing of the Munich Pact. Appeasement
Quick Strike or lightening war--Germany invaded Poland on September 1st 1939. Form of warfare in which troops in tanks make quick surprise strikes with support of airplanes. Blitzkrieg
The belief that the United States should refrain from any involvement in overseas politics, alliances or wars and to always stay neutral or stay out of foreign affairs particularly in Europe. Isolationism
In 1937-1938, the Empire of Japan took territory in China including Manchuria and the Nanking Provinces. In a display of military might-Japanese Army perpetrated horrible atrocities on Chinese civilians and soldiers--including mass killings and rapes. The Rape of Nanking
Was formed to investigate whether or not munitions manufacturers and bankers were pro-war in WWI solely to make profit. It also increased anti-war atmosphere and pushed FDR to pass Neutrality Acts. Nye Commitee
Leading isolationist group advocating that America focus on continental defense and non-involvement with the war in Europe--if you were in this group you were considered an isolationist. America First Committee
When Japan invaded China in 1937, FDR tested the public opinion by making a speech proposing that the democracies act together to stop Japanese aggression by cutting off economic supplies to Japan. Quarantine Speech
Roosevelt persuaded Congress in 1939 to adopt a less restrictive Neutrality Act, which provided that a belligerent could buy U.S. arms if it used its own ships and paid cash to take them back to Europe. Cash and Carry
A law for compulsory military service first used in WWI and again in 1940 during WW II. Provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 35 and for the training of 1.2 million troops in one year. Selective Service Act
Britain received 50 older but still serviceable U.S. destroyers and gave the United States the right to build military bases on British islands in the Caribbean that we still use today. Destroyers-for-Bases Deal
A speech by FDR that proposed lending money to Britain for the purchase of U.S. war materials and that the United States must help other nations defend freedom of speech, religion, want, and fear. Four Freedoms Speech
The legislation gave President Franklin D. Roosevelt the powers to sell, transfer, exchange, lend equipment to any country to help it defend itself against the Axis powers. Great Britain was allowed to borrow money to buy military equipment from the US. Lend-Lease Act (1941)
1941 pledge signed in secret by US president FDR and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill on a ship in the Atlantic Ocean not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII and to work for peace after the war and prevent another world war. Atlantic Charter
Japanese naval air force made a surprise attack on the U.S. naval base in this place in Hawaii. Several battleships of the U.S. Pacific fleet were damaged or sunk. This attack resulted in an American declaration of war the following day. Dec. 7th, 1941 Pearl Harbor
Board that allocated scarce materials, limited or stopped the production of civil goods, and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers. It provided the needed raw materials for the war effort during WW II. War Production Board
Through radio broadcasts, newspapers, posters, photographs, films and other forms of media, the OWI was the connection between the battlefront and civilian communities. Wartime Propaganda Agency in the U.S.A. Office of War Information
A secret research and development project of the U.S to develop the atomic bomb. Its success granted the U.S the bombs that ended the war with Japan as well as ushering the country into the atomic era. Manhattan Project
Regulated almost every aspect of civilians lives by freezing prices, wages, and rests and rationing, such commodities as meat, sugar, gasoline, and auto tires. Office of Price Administration.
A slogan saying one victory over fascism abroad and one for equality at home--A Civil Rights aspect discussed on the home front and promoted by 1940s civil rights leader, Asa Philip Randolph. The Double V
Program established by agreement with the Mexican government to recruit temporary Mexican agricultural workers to the United States to make up for wartime labor shortages in the far west--particularly agricultural jobs in California. Braceros Program
Japanese were seen as a threat to the U.S. citizens. In order to keep these suspicious citizens under control, they were relocated to internment camps under FDR's Executive Order 9066--a direct violation of Japanese-American civil liberties. Japanese internment
1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld FDR's Executive Order 9066--providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. Korematsu v. U.S.
A cultural icon of the United States, representing the American women who worked in war factories during World War II. Many of whom worked in the manufacturing plants that produced munitions and materials for the war. "Rosie the Riveter"
Vice president under FDR in 1945, he assumed the office of the presidency in April of that year, when FDR died from a brain hemorrhage. He chose to use atomic weapons against Japan at Hiroshima and Nagasaki to end the war in the Pacific. Harry S. Truman
Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe during World War II and planner of the D-Day invasion...became president after Truman and during his two terms presided over the economically prosperous 1950s. Dwight Eisenhower
Turning point in the war; day of invasion of Normandy - June 6, 1944; over 9,000 soldiers died. D-Day
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled. Means "death by fire". Over 6 million killed. Holocaust
A strategy in which Pacific commanders bypassed strongly held Japanese posts and isolated them with naval and air power. Allied forces moved steadily toward Japan as the allies took one island after another. Island-hopping
A pivotal naval battle fought near the island of Midway on June 3-6, 1942. The victory halted Japanese advances and is considered the "turning point" toward Allied victory over Japan in the War in the Pacific during WW II. Battle of Midway
American commander in the Philippines and mastermind of the "leapfrogging" strategy for bypassing strongly defended Japanese islands during WW II he would go on to command American troops in the Korean War. Douglas MacArthur
"Divine wind," Japanese term for fighter pilots who crashed their planes into American warships during the latter stages of WW II in the Pacific. Kamikaze Attacks
He was remembered as the "Father of the Atomic Bomb." Also led the Manhattan Project. His science created the most destructive weapon in human history. J Robert Oppenheimer
The US warned Japan that it had weapons of mass destruction. The Japanese were warned to surrender or suffer the consequences. The first atomic bomb was dropped on this Japanese city on August 6,, 1945. Hiroshima
August 9, 1945,the U.S. dropped second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, killed or wounded 80,000 people. Japan then surrendered August 10--which is forever known in history as? VJ Day
Nickname for Allied war leaders who met between 1943 and 1945 to coordinate attacks on Germany and Japan, and later to discuss plans for postwar Europe and settlement of Germany in various wartime conferences such as Postdam Conference. Big Three
A wartime conference that the Allies demanded the unconditional surrender of the axis, agreed to aid the Soviets, agreed on the invasion Italy, and the joint leadership of the Free French by De Gaulle and Giraud. Casablanca Conference
A wartime conference, Iran that was attended by FDR, Churchill, and Stalin. It was the first meeting of the "Big Three" and it agreed on an opening of a second front (Overlord), and that the Soviet Union should enter the war against Japan. Tehran Conference
This wartime conference focused on discussing Europe's postwar reorganization following the defeat of the Axis Powers; intended to discuss the re-establishment of the nations of war-torn Europe. Yalta Conference
Meeting between Stalin, Churchill, and Truman to discuss the post-WWII era; compromise:each wartime power would get an occupation zone in Germany..marked the end of wartime alliances and the beginning of a Cold War between the Soviet Union and the Allies Potsdam Conference
An organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security following World War II that still exists to this day. Located in New York City, New York. United Nations
May 8th 1945 marks the Allied victory over Hitler's forces in Europe. It is the formal acceptance of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces. VE Day
War crimes trials following World War II of German, Italian, and Japanese leaders who committed war-crimes. Some leaders of the Axis powers were executed for their involvement in the Holocaust and Rape of Nanking. Nuremberg Trials
Created by: waltcochran