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Praxis II PLT

Sequence Diagrams Students can use with teacher's modeling and guidance, to remember the sequence of events in a factual or fictional text.
Readiness to Learn A context within which a student's more basic needs (such as sleep, safety, and love) are met and the student is cognitively ready for developmentally appropriate problem-solving and learning.
Response Can take many forms across the content areas. It can be orally, in writing, or through the visual and performance arts. Can be used as authentic assessments and are often assessed by using a set of criteria and a scoring rubric.
Field Trips Excursions off the main campus that provide students with an opportunity to gain deeper, real-life hands-on knowledge about a concept of study. If used at the beginning of a unity, they can build students' background knowledge.
Performance Standards Generally set at the state and local level and describe the level of performance expectation for student groups.
Content Standards Provide expectations for the knowledge students must demonstrate within a discipline.
Thematic Instruction A way to organize curriculum around large themes. They are integrated across several content areas, such as reading, social studies, math, and science.
Simulations Used to help students become immersed in the content being studied. Computer and video technology offers teachers many opportunities.
Ausubel, David He suggested a teaching technique called the advance organizer. The advance organizer is introduced before learning begins and is designed to help students link their prior knowledge to the current lesson's content.
Portfolio Carefully selected collections of student products, and sometimes teacher observations, that reflect a student's progress over time. Include students in the selection process, and demonstrate their performance over time.
Performance Assessment These require a student to perform a task or generate his or her own response during the assessment. For example, for a composition class would require a student to write something rather than answer multiple choice questions about writing.
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) May be found to impact student learning. Students may have difficulty focusing, following directions, organizing, making transitions, completing tasks, and so on. The diagnosis is made by a medical professional, not school personnel.
Skinner, B.F. Operant Conditioning - Grandfather of behaviorism. He conducted much of the experimental research that is the basis of behavioral learning theory. His theory is based on the idea that learning is a function of change in observable behavior.
Operant Conditioning Changes in behavior are the result of a person's response to events (stimuli). When a stimulus-response is reinforced (rewarded), the individual becomes conditioned to respond.
Achievement Tests These assessments are written for a variety of subjects and levels and are designed to measure a student's knowledge in something that has been learned or taught.
Reciprocal Teaching The teacher and the student engage in a discussion of the text. Both the student and the teacher question and respond to the text in an effort to improve the student's comprehension of the material
Essay This type of question requires the student to make connections between new and previously learned content, to apply information to new situations, and to demonstrate that they have learned the new information.
Observation This is arguably the most important assessment tool. Also known as kidwatching, observing student interactions and learning behaviors is important to any classroom assessment plan.
Scaled Score Based on a mathematical transformation of a raw score. Can be helpful when determining averages and to study change over time.
Validity A test is found to be valid if it measures what it was designed to measure.
Formal Operational Thinkers Children approximately ages 11 - 15 develop hypothetical and abstract thinking. Students at this state can use logical operations to work abstract problems.
Functional Mental Retardation (MR) A diagnosis determined by a medical professional for a child who exhibits difficulties with the following: age-specific activities, communication, daily living activities, and getting along with others.
Learning Disability (LD) Determined by a multidisciplinary team (MDT) or a physician. These students are not learning to their potential in one or more areas; such as reading, writing, oral language, or mathematics. There are three main types: reading, mathematics, and written.
Lesson Plan Framework 1. Instructional Objectives 2. Standards addressed 3. Materials 4. Learner and environment factors 5. Opening 6. Middle 7. Closing
Kounin, Jacob With-it-ness - Teachers must have "with-it-ness" or an awareness of what is happening in their classrooms, in order to manage their classrooms well. Teachers must pace their lessons appropriately and create smooth transitions between activities.
Grade-level Equivalent Scores Demonstrate the grade and month of the school year to which a student can be compared. For example, a score of 5.1 would indicate that a student is performing at a fifth-grade, first-month level.
Quartiles When you divide a normal distribution of scores into four equal parts.
Piaget, Jean Stages of Cognitive Development 1. Sensorimotor: birth - 2 2. Preoperational: 2 - 7 3. Concrete operational: 7 - 11 4. Formal operational: 11+
Hidalgo, Nitza Three Levels of Culture 1. Concrete 2. Behavioral 3. Symbolic
Think-Pair-Share A cooperative learning structure in which the teacher poses a problem or situation and asks the students to think individually. The teacher then pairs each student with a peer to share his or her thinking on the problem or situation
Brown vs. Board of Education On May 17, 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court announced its decision that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal," thereby changing the face of American education forever.
Constructivism A philosophy of learning based on the premise that people construct their own understanding of the world they live in through reflection on experiences.
Stanine Based on a nine-point standard scale with a mean of five and a standard deviation of two.
Assigning Homework and Practice One of the "Essential Nine" instructional strategies. Homework provides an opportunity for extended practice of a lesson.
Norm-referenced tests Also known as standardized tests. They are used to determine a student's performance in relation to the performance of a group of peers who have taken the same test.
Encouraging Cooperative Learning One of the "Essential Nine" instructional strategies. Key features include: 1. Positive interdependence 2. Positive interaction 3. Individual and group accountability 4. Interpersonal skills 5. Group processing
Visual Learner Process information through seeing. Learn through visual displays, films, illustrated books, handouts, graphic organizers, bulletin boards, and so on.
Summative Evaluations These assessments provide information about learning to be used in making judgements about a student's achievement and the teacher's instruction.
Diagnostic Evaluations These are usually standardized or norm-referenced and are given before instruction begins to help teachers understand students' learning needs
Questioning Teaching use this strategies to help students construct meaning out of content. A common structure for questioning is IRE: Initiate, Respond, and Evaluate.
Reliability The extent to which an assessment is consistent with its measures.
Learned Helplessness A tendency for a person to be a passive learner who is dependent on others for guidance and decision-making.
Discussion A key instructional technique in which students actively engage in discourse about course content. Can be teacher-led or peer-led. Teacher-led structures include lectures, recitations, reciprocal teaching, and Socratic seminars.
Authentic Assessments These assessments measure student understanding of the learning process and product, rather than just the product. Students develop the responses rather than selecting from predetermined options.
Bruner, Jerome Discovery Learning and Constructivism - He suggests that learners or concepts based on knowledge or past experiences. Emphasizes a student's ability to solve real-life problems and make new meaning through reflection.
Behavioral Objective Places the emphasis upon what the student is expected to do, not upon what the teacher will do.
Cognitive Objectives Involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. Knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
American Disabilities Act (ADA) This prohibits discrimination on the basis of a person's disability for all services, programs, and activities provided or made available by state and local governments.
Aptitude Tests These assessments are standardized (norm-referenced) tests that are designed to measure a student's ability to develop or acquire skills and knowledge.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) A federal statute made up of several grant programs assisting states in educating students with disabilities. Specifically lists types of disabilities and conditions that render a child entitled to special education.
Developmental Delays Identified by a medical professional in a child before the age of 22. May have one of the following difficulties: self-care, expressive language, learning, mobility, self-direction, capacity for independent living, and economic self-sufficiency.
Mastery Learning A teacher uses a group-based teacher-centered instructional approach to provide learning conditions for all students to achieve mastery of assigned information.
Scaffolding Instructional supports provided to a student by an adult or a more capable peer in a learning situation.
Individualized Education Program (IEP) A written plan for a student with disabilities developed by a team of professionals and the child's parents. MDT's evaluation of the child and describes how the child is doing presently, what the learning needs are, and what services are needed.
Sample A smaller number of participants drawn from a total population.
Transfer The ability to apply a lesson learned in one situation to a new situation.
Setting up the Learning Environment 1. Place materials for student use in easy-to-access places 2. Use wait time when questioning students 3. Create a safe and comfortable learning environment
Standard Error of Measurement The standard deviation of test scores you would have obtained from a single student who took the same test multiple times.
Continuums A graphic organizer that can be used to help students learn key vocabulary or concepts.
Cause-and-Effect Maps These visuals describe the relationship, between events, their causes, and their effect. They may be used in narrative or expository texts.
Learning Centers Designed to enable individuals or small groups of students to interact with course content after the teacher has taught the focus lesson or while the teacher is leading small-group sessions.
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) The educational setting that, to the maximum extent appropriate, students with disabilities are educated with non-disabled peers. IDEA
School-to-Work Program that offers students opportunities to transition successfully from the classroom to the workforce
Discovery Learning Teaching methods that enable students to discover information by themselves or in groups. Fosters inquiry rather than didactic methods of learning. Students are encouraged to ask questions and to hypothesize as they deduce the concepts and principles.
Alternative Assessments Include anecdotal records or student behavior, portfolios, checklists of student progress, and student/teacher conferences.
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Can impact student learning. Students may have difficulty focusing, following directions, organizing, transitioning, completing tasks. May also have difficulty with impulsivity, sitting, taking turns. Diagnosis is made by a medical professional.
Emergent Curriculum Based primarily on the interests of children. The teacher works together with family & other community members to set possible direction for a project and then determine the actual curriculum based on student interest.
Differentiated Instruction Involves a flexible approach to teaching. A teacher plans and implements varied approaches to teaching content, process, and product in an effort to respond to student differences in readiness, interests, and learning needs.
Standards-based Assessment These assessments measure student progress toward meeting goals based on local, state, and/or national goals. Can be based on content or performance standards and can be criterion-referenced or norm-referenced.
Inquiry Model An approach to teaching involves students in the process of exploring the natural and/or material world, in an effort to help them discover meaning.
Anecdotal Records These are written notes teachers maintain based on their observations of individual children.
Kinesthetic Learner Learners who process information through moving and doing. They learn through acting out scenes, putting on play, moving to the beat, pacing out measurements on the sidewalk, and so on.Yo
Your role as a teacher 1. Set clear expectations 2. Enforce rules fairly and consistently 3. Possess positive and realistically high expectations 4. Highlight students' strengths and support their goals 5. Model appropriate behavior 6. Accept and understand children
Rubric A scoring guide used in assessments.
Extrinsic Motivation Comes from "without", or from outside a person. Stickers, behavior charts, and incentives for learning are all examples.
Jigsaw A cooperative learning structure in which instructional materials are divided and then studied by individuals or pairs of students. After students become experts on their sections, they share the information with the group.
Independent Study Sessions or units give students a chance to work at their own pace under the teacher's leadership or guidance.
Primary Sources/Documents Materials or documents are statements or records of law, government, science, mathematics, or history in their original, unaltered form.
Lesson Planning A teacher should know a variety of opening, developing, and closing a lesson. They should know how to set criteria for student performance of objectives and how to measure and evaluate student success.
Dewey, John Father of progressive education practice that promotes individuality, free activity, and learning through experiences such as project-based learning, cooperative learning, and arts integration activities. Children need to learn to be problem-solvers.
Auditory Learning Learners process information through listening. They learn through lectures, discussions, listening to tapes, repeating information, and reading aloud.
Learner Factors Informs lesson planning. English language learners, students with learning disabilities, and students with attention difficulties impact the ways instruction must be differentiated.
Demonstrations Involve explicitly showing students what something is or how to do something.
Play Child's work. Quality early-childhood programs provide opportunities for student play in an effort to provide stimulating, rewarding, and purposeful work.
Journals These can be used as an authentic assessment of a student's understanding of key concepts or of his or her ability to communicate in writing.
Identifying Similarities & Differences One of the "Essential Nine" instructional strategies. When students identify similarities and differences, they can see patterns and connections. Comparing, contrasting, and classifying information helps students.
Gardner, Howard Multiple Intelligences 1. Verbal/linguistic 2. Logical/mathematical 3. Visual/spatial 4. Bodily/kinesthetic 5. Musical 6. Interpersonal 7. Naturalist 8. Intrapersonal
Kohlberg, Lawrence Theory of Moral Development 1. Pre-conventional 2. Conventional 3. Post-conventional 4. Abiding the law and responding to obligations 5. Shows an interest in the welfare of others. 6. Based on respect for universal principles
Modeling Theory by Albert Bandura 1. Attention 2. Retention 3. Reproduction 4. Motivation
Direct Instruction An overarching method for teaching students that includes carefully planned lessons presented in small, attainable increments with clearly defined goals and objectives. Often includes lecture, demonstration, review of student performance, and student exam
Pavlov,Ivan Classical Conditioning - He conducted experiments with dogs in the 1920s. He found the dogs naturally salivate in an unconditioned response to the unconditioned stimulus of food.
Classical Conditioning A learning process in which an innate response to a potent stimulus comes to be elicited in response to a previously neutral stimulus; this is achieved by repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus with the potent stimulus.
Zone of Proximal Development A key concept in Vygotsky's theory of learning. It suggests that students learn best in a social context in which a more able adult or peer teaches the student something he or she could not learn on his or her own.
Mnemonics Designed to help improve students' ability to remember key information.
Autism Spectrum Disorders May include: autism, asperger syndrome, and other pervasive developmental delays (PDD). Students with these disorders have difficulty socializing and communicating.
Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) A cooperative learning structure in which students are assigned to heterogenously grouped teams of four or five members who collaborate on worksheets designed to provide extended practice on instruction.
Cycle Maps Beneficial when a teacher wants students to understand the cyclical nature of a concept
Reinforcing effort and Providing Recognition One of the "Essential Nine" instructional strategies. Parents and teachers must show students the connection between effort and achievement. Teach students the ultimate goal of effort -- the harder you try, the more successful you will be.
Tactile Learner Process information through touching. They learn through active involvement with the physical world (hands-on experiences).
Environmental Factors Will students work in small groups, as a whole group, or individually? Will students have access to learning centers, technology resources, and multimedia as part of the instruction? Is the room temperature too warm or cold for students to concentrate?
Raw Score A student's score that is equivalent to the number of questions he or she answered correctly on an assessment.
Concrete Operational Thinkers Children approximately ages 7 - 11 think in logical terms, no in abstract terms. Students in this age range require hands-on experiences to learn concepts and manipulate symbols logically.
Story Maps Used with Narrative texts to help students identify and recall key story elements, such as characters, setting, plot and conclusion
Differentiated Instruction Examples 1. Tiered instruction 2. Curriculum compacting 3. Curriculum Chunking 4. Flexible grouping
Standard Deviation A measure of variability that indicates the typical distance between a set of scores and the mean/average score.
Schema A concept in the mind about events, scenarios, actions or objects that have been acquired from past experience. The mind loves organization and must find previous experiences with which to associate the information, or the information may not be learned.
Analytical Scoring Typically used to assess constructed-response test questions (essays, short-answer), and includes detailed description of criteria.
Criterion-Referenced Tests These assessments determine how well a student performs relative to a predetermined performance level, such as grade-level expectations or mastery.
Technology Examples: iPads, computers, CD-roms, video and the internet. Serves as a tool for learning in today's schools.
Holistic Scoring Typically used for constructed-response test questions (essays, journals, short-answer). It uses general descriptions of the criteria for success on each question.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act A civil rights law prohibiting discrimination against individuals with disabilities by federally assisted programs or activities. Eligibility for protection is not restricted to school-age children. It covers individuals from birth to death.
Summarizing & Note-taking One of the "Essential Nine" instructional strategies. An important comprehension strategy that can be taught from the early grades through adulthood. Approaches include the double-entry page, graphic organizers, and SQ3R.
Due Process A set of procedures of safeguards that give students with disabilities and their parents/guardians extensive rights. These rights include notice of meetings, opportunities to examine relevant records, impartial hearings, and a review procedure.
Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback One of the "Essential Nine" instructional Strategies. Teachers must help students see what they are learning, why they are learning it, and how this learning connects to other experiences.
Anchored Instruction An instruction approach that ties information to an "anchor". Students use hands-on & experiential learning of the anchor/concept to connect the learning to a concrete experience. It provides students with experiences for them to build their knowledge on.
Project-Based Learning Includes an in-depth investigation of a real-world, authentic topic or problem that is meaningful to students. The students work in small groups or pairs to solve a problem or learn more about the topic.
Graphic Organizers Visuals that show relationships between concepts, terms, facts, or ideas in a learning activity. Examples: visual, visual structures, concept maps,cognitive organizers, advance organizers, and concept diagrams.
Intrinsic Motivation Comes from "within", or from inside a person. Providing students time to reflect on goals and achievements or helping students see what they have learned and how it's important are examples.
Curriculum Frameworks List the broad goals of a school district, state, or school and provide subject-specific outlines of course content, standards, and performance expectations.
Metacognition A person's ability to think about his or her own thinking. Requires self-awareness and self-regulation of thinking.
Matrixes A graphic organizer that is a grid and can be used for a variety of purposes to help students recall information.
Service Learning An instructional approach that combines service to the community with learning inside and outside the classroom.
Self-Evaluation Students' monitoring and regulation of learning is important in the transfer of learning new experiences.
Using cues, questions, and advance organizers One of the "Essential Nine" instructional strategies. Help prepare students minds for instruction. Researchers have found that learning increase when teachers focus on what is most important, not on what students might think is the most interesting.
Critical Thinking Rationally deciding what to believe or what to do. When one rationally decides something, he or she evaluates information to see if it makes sense, whether it is coherent and whether the arguments well founded on evidence
Behavior Disorders (BD) Also known as Conduct Disorder. A disorder in children and adolescents characterized by disruptive behavior. Students with it may violate rules, show aggression toward people or animals, destroy property, or practice deceitfulness.
Formative Evaluations These assessments provide information about learning in progress and offer the teacher and the student an opportunity to monitor and regulate learning.
Testing Accommodations Provided to students including, but are not limited to, longer testing times, untimed tasks, having someone write or type for the student. Braille or large-print fonts, short breaks during testing, and sign-language interpretation for directions.
Anticipatory Set Also known as Set Induction, an activity at the start of a lesson used to set the stage for learning in order to help motivate students and activate prior knowledge.
Objectives These are written to answer the question, "What are students supposed to know or be able to do at the conclusion of the lesson or unit?" They need to include all levels of Bloom's taxonomy, not just the knowledge level.
Fostering Non-linguistic Representations One of the "Essential Nine" Instructional Strategies. Teachers can use representations such as using words or symbols to convey relationships and by using physical models and movement to represent new information.
Interdisciplinary Instruction Incorporates information from two or more content areas (for example: science, mathematics, physical education, technology, and literacy), to help students see the connections and real-life links across disciplines.
Generating and Testing Hypotheses One of the "Essential Nine" instructional strategies. Taps into a students' natural curiosity. It helps students more deeply understand the content of the lesson.
Grouping Practices 1. Partner check 2. Group investigation 3. Whole-group instruction
Montessori, Maria Follow the Child Childhood divided into four stages: 1. 0 - 2 2. 2 - 5 3. 5 - 6 4. 7 - 12 Adolescence divided into two levels: 1. 12 - 15 2. 16 - 18 Stages of learning 1. Introduce a concept 2. Process the information 3. "Knowing"
SQ3R Method for note-taking while reading 1. Survey 2. Question 3. Read 4. Recite 5. Review
ELL, ESL, or PLNE Terms used to describe students who are learning English as a second (or third or fourth) language.
Glasser, William Choice Theory - guides teachers who use this approach to conduct class meetings with students to co-determine class rules, guidelines, and consequences.
Choice Theory Also known as Control Theory - Teachers focus on students' behavior, not students, when resolving classroom conflicts. Students who have a say in the rules, curriculum, and the environment of the classroom have greater ownership of their learning.
Maslow, Abraham Hierarchy of Needs 1. Physiological Needs 2. Safety Needs 3. Love and Belongingness 4. Esteem needs 5. Self-actualization
Gilligan, Carol Stages of Ethic of Care (women) Pre-conventional Stage - survival Transitional Stage - selfishness to responsibility Conventional Stage - Self-sacrifice to goodness Transitional Stage - Goodness - truth Postconventional Stage - nonviolence
Jones Found two common types of behavior in classroom Talking & goofing off occurs during independent practice times. Three strategies to improve time on-task 1. Teacher body language "the look" 2. Incentive systems 3. Efficient individual help for students
Moll, Luis Funds of Knowledge - Multicultural families can become social and intellectual resources for schools. He urges teachers to seek out and use them to gain a more positive view of these capable, but misjudged, students and their families.
Erikson, Erik Eight Stages of Human Development 1. trust vs mistrust 2. autonomy vs doubt 3. initiative vs guilt 4. competence vs inferiority 5. identity vs role confusion 6. intimacy vs isolation 7. Generativity vs stagnation 8. Integrity vs despair
Ginott Promotes supportive and preventive discipline by recognizing the importance of the classroom atmosphere socially and emotionally.
Bandura, Albert Social (or Observational) Learning Theory
Observational Learning Children learn by observing others. In a classroom setting, this may occur through modeling or learning vicariously through others' experiences.
Canter, Lee Assertive Discipline - Teachers clearly communicate expectations and class rules and follow through with expectations. Students have a choice to follow the class rules or face consequences.
Vgotsky, Lev Zone of Proximal Development
Hunter, Madeline Direct Instruction 1. Objectives 2. Standards of performance 3. Anticipatory set or advance organizer 4. Teaching 5. Guided practice and monitoring 6. Lesson closure 7. Extended practice
Ability Grouping Also known as tracking, is the practice of grouping children together according to their talents in the classroom.
Action Research Refers to a variety of evaluative, investigative, and analytical research methods to diagnose problems or weaknesses—whether organizational, academic, or instructional—and help educators develop practical solutions to address them quickly and efficiently.
Advanced Organizer Useful tool for teachers to help students understand, retain and remember new learning material.
Assimilation People take in new information and incorporate it into their existing ideas.
Bloom's Taxonomy Used to classify learning objectives into levels of mastery. The list covers the objectives in cognitive, effective and sensory domains.
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