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US Hist Voc Sem 1

US History Semester 1 Vocabulary

Columbian Exchange The exchange of living things across the Atlantic
Circumnavigate To travel around the world
Colonialism An economic system in which a mother country uses another region or country to gain resources
Imperialism A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force
Mercantilism An economic system in which the mother country controls region or country and has the favorable balance of trade
Cash crop An agricultural crop raised to be sold on the market
Indentured servant a person who sells his or her labor for a period of time, in exchange for gaining passage, a skill, or some other negotiated benefit
House of Burgesses First representative government formed in the English colonies of North America, in Jamestown in 1620
Dissent To disagree with a political, social or economic system
Enumerated articles Resources that were listed by English Parliament that had to sold exclusively to the English by the colonies (indigo, tobacco, sugar, rice)
Resource An asset that can be used to benefit a group or individual
Tidewater A geographic region in the coastal plains of North America, in which rivers rise and fall with the tides due to the low elevation and proximity to the sea
Backcountry A geographic region of North America extending from the fall-line on the Piedmont, across the Appalachian Mountains
Navigation Acts A series of laws passed by British Parliament to enforce mercantilism and to ensure that North American colonists traded only with the Bristish
Favorable balance of trade A term to refer to the unfairness of mercantilism, in which the mother country becomes richer at the cost of the colonies
Banish To send someone away from an area as a punishment
Diversity The state of having a variety of things or people
Proclamation of 1763 A statement issued by British parliament following the French and Indian War that forbid colonists from settling west of a line drawn down the spine of the Appalachian Mountains
Quartering Act A law passed by Parliament that forced colonists to board ("quarter") soldiers in private homes
Intolerable Act A law passed by Parliament following the "Boston Tea Party" that shut down Boston Harbor to trade, enforced the Quartering Act in Boston, forbid political gatherings, and imposed martial law on Boston (also referee to as the Coercive Acts in Britain)
Guerrilla war A style of war featuring ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military
Loyalist A term to refer to North American colonists who supported the British during the American Revolution
Patriot A term to refer to North American colonists who supported an independent United States during the American Revolution
Emancipation Freedom, usually used to refer to ending slavery or gaining political or social freedom
Republicanism A political system in which people vote for individuals to represent them in a government
Democracy A system in which people vote on political decisions
Autocracy A system of government in which one person has absolute power or control
Federalism A political system in which power is shared between states and a central government
Popular sovereignty A political system in which the people have the ultimate power
Judicial A term that refers to the branch of government that focuses on justice and tests the laws to ensure they are supported by the Constitution. Commonly referred to as the Supreme Court and the Courts
Executive A term that refers to the branch of government that focuses on doing the work of the government, made up of the Executive (President) and the departments of the government. commonly referred to as the president and the Secretaries of the departments
Legislative A term that refers to the branch of government that focuses on making the laws. Commonly referred to a Congress, made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives
Checks and balances A principle in the Constitution that ensures that power is not concentrated in one branch of government, and to allow one branch to oversee the operations of the other branches
Preamble The opening paragraph of the Constitution, written by Gouvernor Morris, that lists the goals of the Constitution
Bill of Rights The first ten amendments to the Constitution that list individual rights protected by the Constitution
Northwest Ordinance of 1787 A system created under the Articles of Confederation that created an orderly system by which the United States could grow: 5,000 people could petition for territorial status and 60,000 could petition for statehood.
Land Ordinance of 1785 A system of surveying the land in which townships were created, 6 miles square, with specific sections reserved for paying veterans, and specific sections reserved for paying for education
Precedent An action or event that creates a pattern for the future
Judicial Review The power given to the Supreme Court to invalidate laws and decisions that are incompatible with the Constitution
Nullify To make of no legal use or value, to cancel, to make null and void
Created by: ecaughlin