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Bio/Biochem

MCAT Study Cards

QuestionAnswer
Alanine A, nonpolar
Cysteine C, polar
Aspartic Acid D, polar (-)
Glutamic Acid E, polar (-)
Phenylalanine F, nonpolar
Glycine G, nonpolar
Histidine H, polar (+/-)
Isoleucine I, nonpolar
Lysine K, polar (+)
Leucine L, nonpolar
Methionine M, start codon, nonpolar
Asparagine N, polar, (+)
Proline P, nonpolar, kinks in DNA
Glutamine Q, polar
Arginine R, polar (+)
Serine S, polar
Threonine T, polar
Valine V, nonpolar
Tryptophan W, nonpolar
Tyrosine Y, nonpolar
Protista plants, animals, fungi, eukaryotes
Archae extremophiles
Bacteria prokaryotes diverse capsules with a cell wall and a plasma membrane
Bacterial reproduction one origin of replication, all offspring identical, binary fission, and circular DNA
lag phase adjusting to environment, little to no growth
exponential phase grow exponentially
stationary phase number of bacteria growing equal the number dying
death phase bacteria has used up all nutrients all bacteria die *This does not happen in endospores
coccus circular bacteria
bacilla rod shaped bacteria
spirochete long squiggly bacteria
Gram Staining Purple plasma membrane, thick peptidoglycan, capsule
Gram Staining Pink plasma membrane, thin peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide
conjugation F+ and F- fertility factors transmit DNA via a sex pylus
transduction virus infects bacteria and DNA is taken up by the host
transformation bacteria take up naked DNA
Lytic cycle impatient, host cell breaks open and releases all viruses
Lysogenic cycle dormant for a time, fuse with host and multiply, excise and enter lytic cycle
Receptor mediated endocytosis no envelope, virus must enter via receptor
direct fusion utilization of envelope to attach to host
retroviruses RNA to DNA by reverse transcriptase, integrase into host cell, lysogenic immediately to lytic, bud off
viroids circular RNA, plants only
prions only protein in cell, no RNA or DNA
fecundity the ability to reproduce
population bottleneck a stress event that wipes out most or all the population
pre-zygotic reproductive isolation mechanical, temporal, geographical, behavior
post-zygotic reproductive isolation zygote mortality, hybrid viability, sterility
endoderm Gastrointestinal tract and lungs
mesoderm skin (inner), muscle, bone, heart, renal system, reproductive system
ectoderm skin (outer), nervous system
aldosterone adrenal cortex increase sodium reabsorption, water retention, and increase BP
antidiuretic hormone hypothalamus increase water permeability, increase BP
descending loop of henle water only
ascending loop of henle ions only
muscular system, high Ca binds troponin, moves myosin out of the way, contraction occurs
muscular system, low Ca troponin moves back into place, makes tropomyosin
Respiratory CO2 increases pH decreases
Respiratory key equilibrium CO2 + water -> H2CO3 -> HCO3- + H+
systolic pressure blood is being forced from left ventricle to aorta
diastolic pressure blood is not being pumped, relaxation of ventricles
cardiac muscle nucleus, striations, intercalated disks, moves blood
smooth muscle moves food, urine, and reproductive tracts
skeletal muscle muscle fibers type I and type II, generates heat
type I muscle fiber slow, tryglyceride
type II muscle fiber fast, creatine phosphate and ATP, red
mouth salivary amylase and lingual lipase
esophagus peristalsis
stomach chief cells, parietal cells, mucous cells
chief cells pepsinogen
parietal cells HCl which activates pepsin
exocrine pancreas amylase, lipase, trypsinogen, bicarbonate
endocrine pancrease glucagon and insulin
small intestine peptidase, lactase, nucleosidase
large intestine absorption, no breakdown
liver glycogenolysis, glycolysis
portal triad hepatic artery, hepatic duct, and portal vein
gall bladder bile
hypothalamus gonadotropin releasing hormone, corticotropic releasing hormone, thyrotropin releasing hormone, prolactin inhibiting factor
anterior pituitary FSH, LH, thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic horrmon
posterior pituitary oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone
sympathetic nervous system brain, spinal cord, fight or flight
parasympathetic nervous system all other nerves, rest and digest
astrocytes homeostasis, blood brain barrier, scaffolding
microglia immune system, inflammation, kill bacteria
ependymal barriers, cerebral spinal fluid
membrane depolarization opening Na opening K closing Na closing K
Na/K ATP pump 3 Na out, 2 K in cell
leak channels K out
First line of defense skin and stomach acid
second line of defense phagocytosis, white blood cells, inflammatory response
third line of defense lymphocytes (specific)
B cells marrow, humoral response
memory cells remember the antigen
plasma cells make and release antibodies
T cells thymus, cell-mediated response
suppressor cells decrease anti-antigen activity
helper cells activate B and T cells (CD4)
cytoxic cells destroy (CD8)
LH increase estrogen and testosterone flow
FSH increase before ovulation
inhibin decrease FSH to prevent shedding
progesterone protect the corpus luteum
sperm 4 spermatids created, two meiosis
egg one oocyte created, one polar body, arrested at prophase I before ovulation
trypsin cleaves carboxyl end of arginine and lysine
chymotrypsin cleaves carboxyl end of aromatic amino acids
zwitterion deprotonated carboxyl and protonated amine
x-axis Lineweaver-Burke -1/Km
y-axis Lineweaver-Burke 1/Vmax
competitive inhibitor change in Km
noncompetitive inhibitor change in Vmax
uncompetitive change in Vmax and Km
apoenzyme enzyme that needs a nonprotein molecule to behave catalytically
Native PAGE separate by molecular size or charge, very limited if both vary
SDS-PAGE separates by only molecular weight by making all proteins net negative charge
Isoelectric Focusing separated based on pI
G protein coupled receptors have a membrane-bound protein associated with a trimeric G protein. Involves GTP
selectins allow cells to adhere to carbohydrates on surfaces of other cells
integrins permit cells to adhere to proteins in the extracellular matrix
cadherins Ca-dependent glycoproteins that hold similar cells together
lacZ Beta-galactosidase cleaves lactose into glucose and galactose
lacY encodes for lactose permease which helps transport lactose into the cell
lacA encodes for galactoside O-acetyltransferase
lac repressor absence of lactose halts production of enzymes encoded by the lac operon
CAP (catabolite activator protein) in presence of glucose CAP remains inactive shutting down lacY to prevent transport of lactose into the cell.
agonist binds to receptor and activates to produce a biological response
antagonist blocks or dampens biological responses
phosphatase cleaves phosphate bonds
kinase add phosphate bonds
proteins nucleus -> rough ER -> golgi apparatus
primers high GC content at 5' and 3' ends
which amino acid isomers are used to form proteins? L isomers
which produces more ATP aerobic or anaerobic metabolism Aerobic
microtubules tubulin and protonfilament
microfilament actin and myosin
Hardy Weinberg equation p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1
Hardy Weinberg assumptions natural selection, migration, random drift, and random mating
G cells in stomach, produce gastrin
hypotonic medium lots of water, small solute water moves into the cells
hypertonic medium less water, lots of solute water moves out of cells
calcitonin lowers calcium levels
parathyroid hormone raises calcium levels
endoplasmic reticulum forms compartments and vesicles, participate in protein (rough) and lipid (smooth) synthesis
golgi apparatus packages proteins for export from the cell, forms secretory vesicles
lysosome digest worn out organelles and other cell debris, large role in cell death
peroxisome isolate particular chemical activities from rest of cell
nucleolus assembles ribosomes (rRNA synthesis)
ribosomes protein synthesis (on rough ER)
phospholipid phosphate and alcohol joined by fatty acid tail by phosphodiester bonds
glycerophospholipids ester linkages
sphingolipids can contain phosphatidylethanolamine groups
waxes long chain fatty acid and long chain alcohols
terpene formed from isoprene units of multiple 5 carbons, strongly scented
steroids 3 cyclohexanes, 1 cyclopentane
prostaglandins 20 C unsaturated carboxylic acid. One 5 Carbon ring cAMP regulation
vitamin A vision, carotene, aldehyde form
vitamin D calcitrol bone production
vitamin E biological antioxidant
vitamin K post translational modification, important for prothrombin (clotting)
triacylglycerol energy storage, 3 fatty acids connected by ester linkages to glycerol
saponification cleaves ester bonds in triacylglycerols
histones group of small basic proteins DNA is wrapped around
interphase when cell undergoes DNA replication
heterochromatin transcriptionally silent, highly repetitive, in centromeres
euchromatin genetically active DNA
DNA poly III prokaryotes, adds nucleotides to growing daughter strand
DNA poly alpha eukaryotes, adds nucleotides to growing daughter strand
DNA poly I prokaryotes fills in gaps after RNA primer excision
mismatch repair G2 phase removes errors that were not detected in S phase
nt excision repair removal of thymine dimers
excision endonuclease nicks in phosphodiester backbone
cDNA no introns, only mRNA, involves reverse transcriptase
Southern Blotting DNA transferred to membrane after gel electrophoresis. Probed with single stranded DNA. Restriction endonuclease
nonsense mutation now codes for stop codon
frameshift mutation number of nt added or deleted that can cause elongation or truncation of protein
RNA poly II transcribe mRNA
RNA poly I synthesize rRNA
RNA poly III synthesize tRNA
A site aminoacyl
P site peptidyl
E site exit site
transcription factors bind to the promoter
unsaturated fatty acids one or more double bonds, fluidity in membrane
saturated fatty acids less healthy, decrease membrane fluidity
cholesterol at low T imparts membrane fluidity at high T decreases fluidity
tight jxns epethelial cells prevent solutes from leaking into space, create voltage gradients
gap jxns direct cell cell communication, permit water and some solutes
GLUT 2 low affinity transporter, hepatocytes
GLUT 4 adipose tissue, Km close to glucose levels in blood
Hexokinase inhibited by G6P, phosphorylates glucose so it cannot leave the cell
PFK-1 F6P to F-1,6-BP, inhibited by ATP and citrate, activated by AMP and activated by F-2,6-BP
pyruvate kinase activates F-1,6-BP through a feed forward mechanism
Glycolysis in erythrocytes produces 2,3-BPG which decreases the affinity for O2 for Hb
lactase lactose to Galactose + glucose in brush borders of duodenum
pyruvate dehydrogenase inhibited by Acetyl CoA
glycogen synthase forms alpha 1,4 glycosidic bonds
branching enzyme forms alpha 1,6 linked bond that helps glycogen granule grow
glycogen phosphorylase breaks alpha 1,4 bond
debranching enzyme hydrolyzes alpha 1,6 bond
pyruvate carboxylase activated by Acetyl CoA
PEP carboxykinase induced by glucagon and cortisol
F-1,6-BPase activated by ATP, inhibited by AMP and F-2,6-BP
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase utilized in PPP, induced by insulin, produces NADPH and R5P
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex thiamine pyrophosphatase to oxidize pyruvate
carnitine can be transported across the mitochondrial membrane for Acetyl CoA synthesis
complex I ETC Fe-S cluster to transfer e-, 4H+ translocated
complex II ETC no H+ pumping, Fe-S to transfer e-
complex III ETC 4 H+ translocated, form cyt C
Complex IV ETC cytochromes and Cu2+ to transfer e- cyt C to O2 (final) 2H+ transloacted
Beta oxidation steps oxidation, hydration, oxidation, splitting to form Acetyl CoA
odd number fatty acid forms 1 acetyl coA and 1 palmitoyl coA per 5C
even number fatty acid forms 2 acetyl coA per 4C
glucogenic amino acids all but leucine and lysine
epimer two isomers that differ in configuration at one stereogenic center
anomer cyclic polysaccharide that differ in configuration specifically at the hemiacetal/acetal carbon
chemotaxis the movement of a motile cell or organism in a direction corresponding to a gradient increasing or decreasing for a particular substance
Created by: missmartian