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In what 3 ways has the U.S. Supreme Court played an important role in recent years? 1) Defining a constitutional right to privacy 2) Supporting equal rights 3) Upholding the rule of law
Who was the 1st African-American to serve on the Supreme Court? Thurgood Marshall
Who was the 1st woman to serve on the Supreme Court? Sandra Day O’Connor
Who was the 2nd African-American to serve on the Supreme Court? Clarence Thomas
Who was the 2nd woman to serve on the Supreme Court? Ruth Bader Ginsburg
How have Supreme Court decisions affected individual rights since the 1954 Brown decision? Expanded individual rights
What movement served as a model for other groups to work for civil rights and equal justice? Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s
How have the federal courts protected employment opportunities for American women? 1) 1964 Civil Rights Act 2) Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment
What is the Supreme Court’s most famous right to privacy decision? Roe v. Wade
How did the Supreme Court rule in Roe v. Wade? Said that women have the right to get an abortion during the first 3 months of pregnancy
What was the constitutional basis of the Roe v. Wade decision? State laws making abortion a crime violated the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment.
According to Roe v. Wade, what does the 14th Amendment’s Due Process clause protect? 1) Protects the right to privacy against state action 2) Protects a woman’s right to end her pregnancy
What is federalism? Power sharing between the federal government and the states
What was Ronald Reagan’s political philosophy (ideas)? 1) Conservative 2) Was against the federal government taking away power from the states
What was 1 result of the “Reagan Revolution”? The idea that the size and power of the federal government was too big
What kinds of things did the “Reagan Revolution” support? 1) Cut taxes 2) Move power from the federal government to the states 3) Appoint federal judges who believed in “judicial restraint” 4) Reduce the number of government programs and regulations
What did President Reagan want to do? 1) Reduce the size and power of the federal government 2) Turn over federal government decisions to state governments or private citizens
What was Reagan’s belief about national defense? National defense was one of the main duties of the federal government.
What was Reagan’s position on military spending? Increase it
What are 4 economic indicators used by the federal government to make decisions about economic policy? 1) Gross Domestic Policy (GDP) 2) Exchange rates 3) Inflation 4) Unemployment rates
What is GDP? The market value of the goods and services produced by a country
What 2 types of policy does the federal government use to encourage a healthy economy? 1) Monetary policy 2) Fiscal policy
What is America’s central bank? Federal Reserve
Who controls monetary policy? Federal Reserve
What is monetary policy? Federal Reserve actions to influence the availability of money and credit for individuals and business groups
What action does the Federal Reserve take if it believes the American economy is slowing down? Cuts interest rates
What is inflation? When prices increase and the dollar buys less
What does the Federal Reserve do if it believes the American economy is overheating and thereby causing inflation? Raises interest rates
What is fiscal policy? Federal government taxing and spending actions which influence consumer demand and business activity
Who controls fiscal policy? The President and Congress
Under fiscal policy, what may Congress and the President do if the economy is slowing down? 1) Cut taxes 2) Increase federal spending
Under fiscal policy, what may Congress and the President do if they believe the economy is overheating and thereby causing inflation? 1) Increase taxes 2) Cut federal spending
Created by: wzuger