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Bush/Clinton Foreign


What have been 3 goals of American foreign policy since the end of the Cold War? 1) Foreign aid 2) Humanitarian aid 3) Support for human rights
Who was president when the Cold War ended? George H. W. Bush
Where did communist governments collapse during the presidency of George H. W. Bush? 1) Eastern Europe 2) Soviet Union
What 2 beliefs did Eastern Europe adopt after the fall of communism? 1) Democracy 2) Free market capitalism
What European country reunified in late 1990 under a democratic government? Germany
What Cold War communist super power broke up into fifteen separate nations by the end of 1991? Soviet Union
Where was Yugoslavia located? On the Balkan Peninsula in Europe
What type of government did Yugoslavia have after World War II? Communist
What happened to Yugoslavia in the early 1990s? It collapsed.
What did 4 of the 6 republics of Yugoslavia do in 1991 and 1992? Declared their independence
What three ethnic groups lived in Bosnia-Herzegovina? 1) Bosnians 2) Serbs 3) Croats
What was the religion of the Bosnians? Muslims
What was the religion of the Serbs? Eastern Orthodox Christians
What was the religion of the Croats? Roman Catholics
What ethnic group did not want Bosnia-Herzegovina to become independent from Yugoslavia? The Serbs
What broke out in Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1992? Civil war between the Serbs, Croats, and Bosnians
What 2 American presidents had to deal with the civil war in Bosnia? 1) George H. W. Bush 2) Bill Clinton
When did the civil war in Bosnia attract worldwide attention? When it became known that the Serbian forces were practicing “ethnic cleansing” against Bosnian Muslims and Croats
What did Serbian troops do to more than 2 million Bosnian Muslims and Croats? Took them from their homes and put them into refugee camps
What did the press report about “ethnic cleansing” in Bosnia? 1) Mass murders of civilians 2) Massacres of Muslim men and boys 3) Existence of concentration camps
To what was the Serbian “ethnic cleansing” of Bosnian Muslims compared? Nazi Germany’s attempted genocide of European Jews during World War II
What is genocide? Intentional killing of an entire racial, religious, or cultural group
Did either President Bush or President Clinton intervene directly in Bosnia by sending American ground troops there? No
How did President Bush and Clinton try to stop the civil war in Bosnia? 1) Tried to work through the United Nations 2) Tried to work through NATO
What was the role of NATO under the terms of the peace treaty that ended the civil war in Bosnia? NATO would enforce peace in Bosnia-Herzegovina
How did NATO enforce peace in Bosnia-Herzegovina? NATO sent a peacekeeping force of 60,000 troops to the Balkans, including 20,000 Americans
Where else in Yugoslavia did ethnic violence occur? Kosovo
What was the main ethnic group in Kosovo? Albanian Muslims
What did Kosovo want? Independence from Yugoslavia
How did the Serbs respond to Kosovo’s demands for independence? With “ethnic cleansing” against Albanian Muslims
How did President Clinton respond to violence in Kosovo? Worked through NATO
What action did NATO take in Kosovo? Bombed Yugoslavia to stop Serbs’ slaughter of Albanians in Kosovo
What other action did President Clinton take in Kosovo? Sent American troops to Kosovo as part of a NATO peacekeeping force
Did Kosovo eventually gain independence from Yugoslavia? Yes
What country invaded Kuwait in 1990? Iraq
Who was the dictator of Iraq? Saddam Hussein
What is the major source of wealth in Kuwait? Oil
How did the U.S. react to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait? President Bush said the Iraqi invasion violated Kuwait’s national sovereignty (right to exist as a separate nation).
What did world leaders fear Hussein might do as a result of the invasion of Kuwait? Threaten Saudi Arabia and its oil reserves
What action did the United Nations Security Council take against Iraq? 1) Said the invasion was wrong 2) Imposed economic sanctions or penalties on Iraq
What did President Bush put together to oppose the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait? A coalition or alliance of nations that were against Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait
What 3 major countries supported the American-led coalition that opposed the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait? 1) Great Britain (United Kingdom) 2) France 3) Soviet Union
What was the first phase of Operation Desert Storm? Massive air assault on Iraqi forces occupying Kuwait
What was Operation Desert Storm’s 2nd phase? A ground attack on Kuwait and Iraq
Operation Desert Storm became known as what war? Persian Gulf War
What happened in the Persian Gulf War? 1) Iraqi resistance collapsed. 2) Coalition forces took control of Kuwait’s capital Kuwait City. 3) Iraqi troops retreated back into Iraq.
What war ended in 1991? Persian Gulf War
What were 3 results of the Persian Gulf War? 1) Saddam Hussein stayed in power in Iraq. 2) The American-led coalition achieved its goal of freeing Kuwait from Iraqi rule. 3) The coalition restored self-rule to Kuwait’s leaders.
What was the trade policy of Presidents George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton? Free trade
What does free trade mean? Removal of tariff barriers to trade with other nations
Why did Presidents Bush and Clinton want to eliminate tariffs? No tariffs would: 1) Increase trade, 2) Lead to economic growth in U.S., 3) Create new jobs for Americans.
What president persuaded Congress to pass NAFTA? Bill Clinton
For what does NAFTA stand? North American Free Trade Agreement
What was NAFTA? Trade agreement between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico
What did NAFTA do? 1) Reduced all trade tariffs between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico 2) Reduced most business restrictions between the 3 countries for the next 15 years
What effect did NAFTA have on trade in North America? Created one market or regional trading block, larger than the European community
What type of jobs did NAFTA opponents fear would be eliminated in the United States if NAFTA became law? Manufacturing jobs
What was the main argument used against NAFTA? Removal of tariffs on Mexican imports would cause many American manufacturers to move their factories to Mexico
Why did NAFTA opponents believe American business would move their factories to Mexico? Mexican workers were paid lower wages than American workers
What were 3 foreign policy successes of the Clinton administration? 1) Senate ratified the NAFTA Treaty 2) Restored full diplomatic relations with Vietnam 3) Lifted economic sanctions against South Africa, when apartheid ended
What did it mean for Clinton to restore full diplomatic relations with Vietnam? 1) U.S. recognized communist government as the lawful government of Vietnam 2) U.S. exchanged ambassadors with Vietnam
What country had a policy of racial apartheid? South Africa
Define apartheid. South Africa’s brutal system of racial segregation and discrimination against the nation’s black majority
Who was released from prison in South Africa, when the South African government ended apartheid? Nelson Mandela
What was the African National Congress? Organization committed to racial justice and equal rights for black South Africans
What group came to power when apartheid ended in South Africa? Black majority
Who became the new leader of the South African government when apartheid ended? Nelson Mandela
What did Clinton do when apartheid ended? Lifted economic sanctions against South Africa
What economic sanctions had the U.S. placed against the Republic of South Africa in 1986? Severe restrictions on trade between the U.S. and South Africa
What was the purpose of the United States' economic sanctions against South Africa? 1) Condemn apartheid 2) Pressure the white South African government to repeal its racially discriminatory laws
Created by: wzuger